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What's in an animal cell and a
plant cell? (name and definition)
Part : function
Nucleus: contains genetic material, which controls
the activities of the cell
Cytoplasm: most chemical processes take place 2 types of
here, controlled by enzymes
Cell membrane: controls the movement of cells
substances into and out of the cell
Mitochondria: most energy is released by
respiration here
ribosome's: protein synthesis happens here
Other feature that are only in plant cells (name and definition)
Part : function
Cell Wall: Strengthens the cell.
Chloroplasts: Contains chlorophyll, which absorbs
light energy for photosynthesis.
Permanent Vacuole: Filled with cell sap to help keep
the cell turgid.…read more

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Green plants
absorb light energy The glucose is used in
using chlorophyll in respiration, or converted
their leaves. They into starch and stored.
use it to react carbon Oxygen is produced
as a by-product.
dioxide with water
to make a sugar
called glucose. (1)
This process is called photosynthesis.
Temperature, carbon dioxide
concentration and light intensity are factors
that can limit the rate of photosynthesis.
Plants also need mineral ions, including nitrate and
magnesium, for healthy growth. They suffer from poor growth
conditions where mineral ions are deficient.
Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green
plants. It is the first step towards making food - not just for plants but
ultimately every animal on the planet.
During this reaction, carbon dioxideDuring this reaction, carbon dioxide and Photosynthesis
water are converted into glucose and oxygenDuring this reaction, carbon equation
dioxide and water are converted into glucose and oxygen. The reaction
requires light energy, which is absorbed by a green substance called
Photosynthesis takes place in leaf cells. These contain chloroplasts, which are
tiny objects containing chlorophyll. (4)…read more

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Pyramids of biomass reveal the mass of living material at
each stage
in a chain. The amount of material and energy decreases
from one stage
to the next. Food production is more efficient if the food
chain is short,
or if energy losses from animals are reduced.
The carbon cycle shows how carbon moves from the
through various animals and plants, then back to the
atmosphere again.
Food chains
A food chain shows what eats what in a particular habitat.
For example,
grass seed is eaten by a vole, which is eaten by a barn owl.
The arrows
each item in the chain always point in the direction of
energy flow - in
other words,
from the food to the feeder.…read more

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Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are optimum
temperatures and pH values at which their activity is
greatest. Enzymes are also proteins, and usually denatured
above about 45ºC.
Enzymes are important in respiration and digestion.
Aerobic respiration
Respiration is not the same thing as breathing. That is
more properly called ventilation. Instead, respiration is a
chemical process in which energy is released from food
substances, such as glucose - a sugar.
This is the equation for aerobic respiration:
glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water (+
energy)…read more

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Cell Division
Chromosomes are made from DNA. Genes are short
sections of DNA. Genetically identical cells are produced
by a type of cell division called mitosis. In sexual
reproduction, a male gamete fuses with a female gamete
to produce a new cell. This is called fertilisation.
Gametes are produced by a type of cell division called
meiosis. They contain a single set of chromosomes,
whereas body cells contain two sets of chromosomes.
Alleles are different forms of a gene. They can be dominant or
recessive. Genetic diagrams help us to understand the possible
outcomes when parents produce offspring. Huntington's
disease is a disorder of the nervous system that is caused by a
dominant allele. Cystic fibrosis is a disorder of the cell
membranes caused by a recessive allele.…read more

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