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Biology Key Points
Cells, tissues and organs
Animal and plant cells
Most human cells, like most animal cells, contain a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell
membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes.
Plant and algal cells contain everything in an animal cell, plus many also contain
chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole filled with sap.

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Limiting factors
Plants grow best when they have enough light, carbon dioxide and water, and are
kept at a suitable temperature.
If any of these conditions are not met, the rate of photosynthesis will be limited.

How plants use glucose
Plant and algal cells produce glucose during photosynthesis.
Glucose produced…

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Specific enzymes digest each particular food type.

Speeding up digestion
Enzymes work best in a narrow pH range.

Making use of enzymes
Microorganisms produce enzymes that we can use.
Enzymes can be used in products in the home and in industry.

High-tech enzymes
There are advantages and disadvantages to using…

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Sexual reproduction gives rise to variation.

Stem cells
Stem cells are not specialised, but can differentiate into many different types of cell
when required.
Stem cells can be used to cure some disorders.

From Mendel to DNA
Gregor Mendel worked out how characteristics are inherited.
Genes make up the chromosomes,…

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We can learn from fossils how different organisms have changed as life developed on

Exploring the fossil evidence
The fossil record can show us how much, or how little, organisms have changed over
Many species have evolved and then become extinct.
Several factors can cause extinction of a…


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