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B4 - The Processes of Life - Revision Notes


Part of Cell Animal Plant Bacteria Yeast Explanation
Nucleus Contains DNA, the instructions for
making proteins, (e.g. the enzymes
used in the chemical reactions of
respiration and photosynthesis).
Cytoplasm Gel-like substance where proteins
like enzymes are found. Some
enzyme controlled reactions…

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Bacteria cells are a bit different to plant/animal/yeast cells. They don't have a nucleus, instead they
have a circular molecule of DNA which floats in the cytoplasm. Also they don't have mitochondria,
but they can still respire aerobically.

Living things have thousands of chemical reactions happening inside of them all…

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Active Transport ­ This process uses energy to move substances in and out of cells.

Synthesis Of Large Molecules ­ Lots of large molecules (polymers) are made by joining smalled
molecules together, this requires energy. For example, glucose is joined together to make things like
starch and cellulose in plant…

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Sugar like glucose are carbohydrates.

Bread ­ Bread is made using yeast, the yeast ferment the carbohydrates in the flour and release
carbon dioxide which causes the bread to ride.

Alcohol ­ Yeast ferment sugar to form alcohol (ethanol). The sugar used in alcohol production comes
from things like grapes…

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Not enough light slows down the rate of photosynthesis.
Light provides the energy needed for photosynthesis, as the light level is raised, the rate of
photosynthesis increases steadily ­ but only up to a point. After that, it won't make a difference
because then either temperature or CO level will…

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A partially permeable membrane is one that only allows certain substances to diffuse through it. E.g.
it may only allow small molecules like water to pass through and not larger molecules like sucrose.

Plants take in water through osmosis, there's usually a higher concentration of water in the soil than…

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