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Table of Contents
Kingdom characteristics
Classification examples
Classification of species
What is a species?
Cold climates
Extreme environments
Continuous variation
Discontinuous variation
Investigating variation
uses of variation
Inherited causes of variation
Environmental causes of variation
Both types together
Charles Darwin
Support for Darwin's theory
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Validating evidence
DNA, genes and chromosomes
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Genetic diagrams
Cystic fibrosis
Genetic diagrams (Punnett squares)
Inheriting copies of the allele
Sickle cell disease
Pedigree analysis - Higher tier
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Due to the vast amount of species populating the planet, scientists use classification to
categorize the different organisms by their characteristics. All species have a unique
classification that results in a binomial name. An example of a classification group is
vertebrates. Scientists also use keys to help identify different organisms.
The first rank in the classification process is called a kingdom. There are 5 kingdoms
which are groups based upon what an organisms cells look like.…read more

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Kingdom characteristics
The first big division of living things in the classification system is to put them into one
of five kingdoms. These are based on what an organism's cells are like. This table
shows the names of the kingdoms, the characteristics and examples of the sort of
organisms they contain:
Kingdom Characteristics and Examples
Animalia Multicellular, no cell wall or chlorophyll, heterotrophic feeders.…read more

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Classification examples
It can be easy to classify a species. For example, we are Homo sapiens.
Classification of species
Rank Classificati Notes
kingdo Animalia
phylum chordates animals with a supporting rod running the length of the
body e.g. backbone
class mammals animals that are warm-blooded, have lungs and body hair,
produce milk and give birth to live young
order primates ape-like animals
family hominids human-like animals
genus homo humans
species sapiens modern humans
It can also be difficult to classify a certain organism.…read more

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The vertebrates are animals with a backbone. Scientists separate this group into
smaller groups because of their features:
how the animal takes in oxygen ­ lungs, gills or through the skin
thermoregulation ­ maintains own temperature (homeotherms) or temperature
varies with surroundings (poikilotherms)
Reproduction ­ internal or external fertilisation, lay eggs (oviparous) or give birth to
live young (viviparous).…read more

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Assigning vertebrates to different groups can be difficult as some fall into many
categories: for example, sharks are fish but give birth to live young and use internal
What is a species?
Organisms of the same species:
have more characteristics in common than they do with organisms of a different species
Can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.
Sometimes a species may have different kinds or breeds that show great variation but
the individuals still belong to the same species.…read more


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