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Table of Contents

Classification
Kingdom characteristics
Kingdoms
Classification examples
Classification of species
Viruses
Vertebrates
Vertebrates
What is a species?
Keys
Adaptation
Cold climates
Extreme environments
Variation
Continuous variation
Discontinuous variation
Investigating variation

uses of variation
Inherited causes of variation
Environmental causes of variation
Both types together
Charles Darwin
Support for…

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Alleles
Genetic diagrams
Cystic fibrosis
Genetic diagrams (Punnett squares)
Inheriting copies of the allele
Sickle cell disease
Pedigree analysis - Higher tier




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Classification
Due to the vast amount of species populating the planet, scientists use classification to
categorize the different organisms by their characteristics. All species have a unique
classification that results in a binomial name. An example of a classification group is
vertebrates. Scientists also use keys to help identify different…

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Kingdom characteristics
The first big division of living things in the classification system is to put them into one
of five kingdoms. These are based on what an organism's cells are like. This table
shows the names of the kingdoms, the characteristics and examples of the sort of
organisms they…

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Classification examples
It can be easy to classify a species. For example, we are Homo sapiens.

Classification of species


Rank Classificati Notes
on

kingdo Animalia
m

phylum chordates animals with a supporting rod running the length of the
body e.g. backbone

class mammals animals that are warm-blooded, have lungs and…

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The vertebrates are animals with a backbone. Scientists separate this group into
smaller groups because of their features:
how the animal takes in oxygen ­ lungs, gills or through the skin
thermoregulation ­ maintains own temperature (homeotherms) or temperature
varies with surroundings (poikilotherms)
Reproduction ­ internal or external fertilisation, lay…

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Assigning vertebrates to different groups can be difficult as some fall into many
categories: for example, sharks are fish but give birth to live young and use internal
fertilisation



What is a species?
Organisms of the same species:
have more characteristics in common than they do with organisms of a…

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