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BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:

Carbohydrate molecules are made up of subunits called sugars.
These sugars are made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a
ring shaped molecule.
Groups of the sugar molecules can link together to make larger molecules
and longchain polymers (polysaccharides) e.g. starch.
When monomers (a single sugar…

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Protein ­ Biuret Test
Chop up the food you want to test for protein and place in a test
tube.
Add about 10 drops of biuret solution.
If sample shows a blue ring formed at the surface then shake and
the solution will turn purple if positive.

understand the role…

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Add 10ml of protease solution into every tube and put one tube in
each water bath. Start the stopwatch.
Every minute check the films to see if they have cleared. When the
gelatine has been digested by the protease the silver grains will
fall away from the celluloid backing to…

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Diffusion stops when the particles are evenly concentrated but the
particles are continuously moving.
Diffusion does not need an energy input, it happens because the particles
move constantly.
Larger particles diffuse slower than smaller ones
Red blood cells travel to the lungs to get oxygen. There is a low
concentration…

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understand the factors that affect the rate of movement of substances
into and out of cells to include the effects of surface area to volume ratio,
temperature and concentration gradient

Surface area to volume ratio:
Larger surface area to volume ratio the faster the movement.
More space and bigger difference…

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NUTRITION: IN FLOWERING PLANTS

Photosynthesis happens in the leaves of all green plants.
It is the process that makes food in plants. This food is called glucose.

describe the process of photosynthesis and understand its importance
in conversion of light energy into chemical energy

In photosynthesis:
Plants take carbon dioxide…

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Reached optimum
Stable as there is a new limiting factor e.g. light intensity


Reached optimum
Stable as there is a new limiting factor e.g. carbon dioxide
Light is the limiting factor
Photosynthesis is slow




Constant decrease

Constant increase

Optimum level




If the carbon dioxide level is raised
then then photosynthesis…

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There is only a short distance to reach the photosynthesising cells.
Leaves have air spaces
There are air spaces in the spongy mesophyll layer. It lets gases
like carbon dioxide and oxygen move between cells.
Creates a larger surface area.
Leaves contain chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is found it chloroplasts. These chloroplasts…

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Method:
Inside a beaker, place an upsidedown funnel supported by
supports so it doesn't touch the bottom surface.
Inside the funnel place some pondweed.
Over the end of the funnel place a test tube to collect the gas then
pour water in the beaker.
Do the same again with another…

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Dana

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lifesaver!!!!!!

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