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Carbohydrate molecules are made up of subunits called sugars.
These sugars are made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a
ring shaped molecule.
Groups of the sugar molecules can link together to make larger molecules
and longchain polymers (polysaccharides) e.g. starch.
When monomers (a single sugar molecule) are stuck together it makes a
polymer.…read more

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Protein ­ Biuret Test
Chop up the food you want to test for protein and place in a test
Add about 10 drops of biuret solution.
If sample shows a blue ring formed at the surface then shake and
the solution will turn purple if positive.
understand the role of enzymes as biological catalysts in metabolic
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts controlling the rate
of metabolic reactions in living organisms.…read more

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Add 10ml of protease solution into every tube and put one tube in
each water bath. Start the stopwatch.
Every minute check the films to see if they have cleared. When the
gelatine has been digested by the protease the silver grains will
fall away from the celluloid backing to leave a transparent film.
Note down the time taken for each temperature and tube.
The faster the film clears the more active the enzyme.
Rate of activity of enzyme rises with the temperature.…read more

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Diffusion stops when the particles are evenly concentrated but the
particles are continuously moving.
Diffusion does not need an energy input, it happens because the particles
move constantly.
Larger particles diffuse slower than smaller ones
Red blood cells travel to the lungs to get oxygen. There is a low
concentration of oxygen in the red blood cells and a high concentration of
oxygen in the alveoli of the lungs so oxygen diffuses into the red blood
cells.…read more

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Surface area to volume ratio:
Larger surface area to volume ratio the faster the movement.
More space and bigger difference makes quicker diffusion
Higher temperature means faster movement.
More heat energy which provides kinetic energy for particles so
they move into and out quicker.
Concentration Gradient:
The higher the concentration gradient the more movement.
When there is a high concentration gradient there are more
molecules to cross to the other side and fewer molecules for the
particles to collide with.…read more

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Photosynthesis happens in the leaves of all green plants.
It is the process that makes food in plants. This food is called glucose.
describe the process of photosynthesis and understand its importance
in conversion of light energy into chemical energy
In photosynthesis:
Plants take carbon dioxide (from air) and water (from soil) and use
the energy from sunlight to convert them into food. The first food
they make is glucose this later can change into different food
types.…read more

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Reached optimum
Stable as there is a new limiting factor e.g. light intensity
Reached optimum
Stable as there is a new limiting factor e.g. carbon dioxide
Light is the limiting factor
Photosynthesis is slow
Constant decrease
Constant increase
Optimum level
If the carbon dioxide level is raised
then then photosynthesis will
happen faster but if the light intensity isn't bright enough to allow the plant
to use the CO2 then light intensity becomes a limiting factor. This is the
reverse for light intensity being raised.…read more

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There is only a short distance to reach the photosynthesising cells.
Leaves have air spaces
There are air spaces in the spongy mesophyll layer. It lets gases
like carbon dioxide and oxygen move between cells.
Creates a larger surface area.
Leaves contain chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is found it chloroplasts. These chloroplasts are found
near the top of the leaf making them closer to the light.
Leaves have a transparent epidermis
The upper epidermis is transparent so that light can pass through it
to the palisade layer.…read more

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Inside a beaker, place an upsidedown funnel supported by
supports so it doesn't touch the bottom surface.
Inside the funnel place some pondweed.
Over the end of the funnel place a test tube to collect the gas then
pour water in the beaker.
Do the same again with another beaker but place it in a dark
room. This is the control.
When sufficient gas has collected from the plant in the light remove
the test tube and insert a glowing splint.…read more




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