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BIOLOGY B3…read more

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Animal cell
Cell membrane ­ movement of substances
Cytoplasm ­ chemical reactions
Nucleus ­ genetic info on chromosomes
Mitochondrion ­ respiration
Chromosomes > DNA > Genes
Genes carry code for proteins
DNA copies itself
Base code sequence (3)
Base codes join up in DNA replication CG AT…read more

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Process of replication sped up by enzymes
Enzymes are not alive biological catalysts
Enzymes are substrate specific
Active site = reaction occurs
Optimum conditions
Denatured = changed shape of active site so substrate cannot fit
Incorrect pH or too high temperature
Low temp slows activity…read more

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Movement of particles from a high to low concentration
Lungs, kidneys, small intestines, placenta & mother
Semi permeable membrane
Increased surface area, thin layer between cells, moist, good
blood supply
Gases in and out of blood, amino acids, fatty acids, glycerol and
glucose in and out of blood, nitrogenous waste, urea it and out
of blood, potassium and sodium ions between nerve synapses,
substances to and from foetus via placenta, carbon dioxide in
and out of leaf…read more

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Circulatory system
Arteries = thick elastic and muscular wall for high pressure
Veins = large lumen for blood flow and valves to stop back flow
Capillaries = thin walls for diffusion of materials
Heart = double pump
Atria and ventricles above
Valves to stop back flow
Pulmonary artery takes to lungs, aorta to body, vena cava back from
body, left side thicker
Blood ­ red blood cells to carry oxygen, white blood cells to fight
disease, plasma for dissolved food, waste and CO2 and platelets to
break down cells help clotting…read more

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Multicellular organisms grow large. Organisms can
differentiate cells
Human cells contain 23 pairs of homologus chromosomes
Mitosis ­ cell division
Cell rests
Chromosomes in nucleus copied
Spindle forms, chromosomes arranged along equator
Chromosomes to poles of cells
Cell divides
2 genetically identical diploid daughter cells formed
Growth and repair…read more

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