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Biology 2-Life processes

Plant and animal cells




plant cell

Has all the bits that the animal cell has plus:

Permanent Vacuole- contains cell sap, weak solution of sugar and salts.

Nucleus-contains genetic material and controls activities of cells

Cytoplasm-gel like substance where all the chemical reactions take place

Cell membrane-…

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Lots of cells= tissues = organs = organ systems

Specialised cells-Palisade cells, Guard cells,Red blood cells and sperm and egg cell




-Palisade cells are packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

- Crammed at top of cell so are near light.

-Tall shape means lots of surface area for absorption of Carbon…

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No nuclues- so have enough room for the haemoglobin, important part of blood, blood is a tissue.

Sperm and egg cell




Main functions of an egg cell are to carry the female DNA and nourish the developing embryo in the
early stages.

When sperm fuses with egg, the eggs membrane…

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- Only small molecules can diffuse e.g. glucose,amino acids, water and oxygen.
big molecules like starch and proteins and starch cant fit through the membarne.
Three things which the rate of diffusion depends on-
-Distance- substances diffuse more quickly when they havent got far to move.
- Concentration difference-substances duffuse…

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Minerals for healthy growth

Nitrates- needed for amino acids which are used to make proteins.


Magnesium needed to make chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynthesis.


other minerals such as potassium and phosphates and needed for things like making
DNA and cell membranes.

Lack of these nutrients can cause deficiency symptoms…

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warm, moist conditions. All the important elements are recycyled, ready to make
new plants and put back into the food chain.

Managing food production

The efficiency of food production can be improved.

By reducing the nbumber of stgaes in the food chain

You can grow crops on the field for…

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