First 295 words of the document:
Classification is the organisation of living organisms into groups.
They are similar to one another but different from members of other species.
They resemble one another physically and biochemically.
Occupy same ECOLOGICAL NICHE (describes how an organism fits into its environment- what
the species is like, its behaviours with other species, how it responds to the environment).
They are capable of producing living, fertile offspring.
They belong to the same GENE POOL (total number of alleles in a particular population at a
Generic name: denotes the genus to which organisms belong to (has Upper case start)
Specific name: 2nd name which denotes the species to which organisms belong to (lower
Divides organisms according to differences at that time e.g. colour, leg count.
ANALOGOUS CHARACTERISTICS: Where they have the same function but do not have the same
evolutionary origins. E.g. bird's and butterfly's wings.
a) Evolutionary relationships between organisms and their ancestors.
b) Shared features derived from their ancestors.
c) Hierarchy- groups are contained within larger composite groups with no overlap.
HOMOLOGOUS CHARACTERISTICS: Similar evolutionary origins, regardless of their functions, in adult
species of the population.
Relationships in natural classification are based on homologous characteristics.
Taxonomy... `The classification of something, especially organisms.'
Within each natural biological classification there is a taxon.
Taxonomy is the study of these and taxonomic ranks (position in hierarchal order).
Phylogeny is the evolutionary relationship between organisms. Phylogenetic tree has
oldest species at base.