Biology AS AQA Unit 1 Lung Disease

Made these notes for my year 12 summer exam to revise and read over. There are spelling mistakes in most of my files but due to the busy exam schedule I had no time to correct them (sorry).

Most files have more information than what is needed but I feel it helps you feel more confident walking into the exam if you have a greater knowledge background and may help when having to apply knowledge to questions. Good luck :)

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  • Created by: Chelcie
  • Created on: 02-09-13 12:37

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Lung Disease
The volume of oxygen that has to be absorbed (and CO removed) is large in mammals because:
1) They are relatively large organisms with a large volume of living cells
2) They maintain a high body temperature and therefore have high metabolic rates and
respiratory rates

MAMMALIAN LUNGS…

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Total volume of air that is moved into the lungs during one minute


Pulmonary ventilation (dm3 min-1) = tidal volume (dm3) x ventilation rate (min-1)



ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF EXCHANGE SURFACES
Large surface area to volume ration
To speed up rate of exchange

Very thin
Keep diffusion pathway short

Partially permeable…

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Transmission
Spreads through air droplets.
The bacterium is resistant and can survive for several weeks once the droplets have dried.
TB is spread between family members/close friends/work colleagues as close contact for a while is
needed for transmission.
TB can also spread from cow to human as bacteria also infect…

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ASTHMA

Localised allergic reaction
Allergens stimulate asthma
One or more of these allergens causes which blood cells on the linings of the bronchi and bronchioles
to release histamine.
Histamine:
Causes airway linings to be inflamed.
Cells of epithelial lining secrete larger quantities of mucus
Fluid leaves capillaries and enters the…

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