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Enzymes and Digestion
Enzymes are important in digestion. Digestion is the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins
and fats into small soluble substances that can be absorbed into the blood.
Lipases and proteases are used in biological detergents, and enzymes are used in the
manufacture of food and drink.


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Homeostasis is the process where the body maintains a constant internal environment.
This includes constant temperature, pH, water content, glucose content, ion content and
Carbon dioxide is a waste product of respiration; it is excreted through the lungs.
Some of the amino acids we take in are not…

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If there is too much sugar in our blood the pancreas produces insulin which stores
excess sugar in the liver as glycogen. If insulin is not produces the blood sugar
level may become fatally high.
If the pancreas is not producing enough insulin this is known as diabetes. It can…

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Photosynthesis is the chemical change which happens in the leaves of green plants.

H2O + CO2 O2 + C6H1206

Wax Cuticle - creates a water proof layer
Upper epidermis - thin layer of cells to allow light through
Palisade cell - specialist cell for photosynthesis
Spongy layers - lots…

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Glucose is soluble and so cannot be stored, because of this glucose is converted into starch
which is insoluble.

The veins in a leaf contain to vessels.
Xylem: carries water from the roots to the leaves
Phloem: carries glucose to other parts of the plant from the leaves.

The test…

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Pairs of chromosomes are called homologous pairs. They have the same genes in the same
position but may have different alleles.
o Chromosomes are in the cells nucleus and are made from long DNA
o Are large and complex molecules. They carry the genetic code that

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1 gene codes for 1 protein which determines 1 characteristic
Everyone has two alleles for each gene, if the alleles for a characteristic in a homologous pair
are the same, the organism is said to be homozygous for that characteristic.
If the alleles for a characteristic in a homologous pair…

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People who are against embryonic stem cell research say stem cell research say adult
stem cell research should be taken further
They believe life starts at conception and so it is destroying life by killing unborn
They are worried that stem cells may be used to gain profit


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Green is a dominant allele

DNA Fingerprinting
Unless you have an identical twin, your DNA is unique to you. Other members of your family
will have strong similarities in DAN, but each individual will has their own unique blue print.
Only identical twins have the same DNA because they were…

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For example, the allele for brown eyes is dominant, while the allele for blue eyes is recessive.
An individual who inherits one or two alleles for brown eyes will have brown eyes. An
individual will only have blue eyes if they inherit two copies of the allele for blue eyes.…


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