BIOLOGY 2 REVISION - KEY WORDS & DEFINITIONS

Key words and definitions that should help you get through your Biology 2 Exam! (Additional Science)

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  • Created on: 20-05-12 11:43
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Homeostasis Keeping conditions within the body constant
Carbon Dioxide Diffuses out of cells, carried by the blood and eventually exhaled
Urea Toxic and is removed by Kidneys
Kidneys Remove water from the blood
Colon (Large Intestine) Removes water from faeces
Insulin Hormone that causes the liver to convert glucose into glycogen
Glucagon Hormone that causes the liver to convert glycogen back into glucose
Pancreas Monitors glucose levels in the blood. Produces Insulin and Glucagon.
Type 1 Diabetes Body can't MAKE insulin
Type 2 Diabetes Body doesn't RESPOND to insulin
Receptor Detects the stimulus
Processor Receives information and makes a decision
Effector Carries out an action
Cell Membrane Controls what ENTERS AND LEAVES
Cytoplasm Watery substance. Where CHEMICAL REACTIONS happen.
Nucleus Contains genetic information for the cell.
Ribosomes Make PROTEINS from AMINO ACIDS.
Mitochondria RELEASE ENERGY by AEROBIC RESPIRATION. Respiration occurs
Chlorophyll Absorbs LIGHT ENEGRY for photosynthesis
Photosynthesis PRODUCES GLUCOSE (FOOD for plant)
Vasodilation When capillaries widen/narrow to increase/decrease heat loss inside the b
Antagonistic Effectors Two effectors that have opposite effects.
Negative feedback Taking action to counteract the effect of a change
Diffusion Particles spreading out, because of their random motion.
Osmosis Movement of WATER MOLECULES, through a MEMBRANE. (random
movements)
Isotonic Concentrations of a substance are the same on both.
Respiration (PLANTS) Process by which plants RELEASE ENERGY for life processes.
GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 +WATER
Chloroplasts WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS. Contains Chlorophyll.
Cellulose Rigid Cell Wall (PLANT CELL)
Permanent Vacuole Contains CELL SAP (PLANT CELL)
Unicellular Organisms made of ONE CELL. (Bacteria)
Multicellular Organisms made of more than one cell. (Animals)
Unspecialised Cells (STEM Can GROW into ANY TYPE OF CELL.
CELLS)
Tissues Groups of SIMILAR CELLS.
Organs Different tissues WORKING TOGETHER
Systems Organs that WORK TOGETHER to perform a function
Muscular Tissue CONTRACT to allow MOVEMENT
Glandular Tissue Produces HORMONES + ENZYMES
Epithelial Tissue COVERS PARTS OF BODY
Nervous Tissue CARRY SIGNALS around body.
Enzymes (Protein molecules) BIOLOGICAL CATALYSTS. Made from AMINO ACIDS.
Carbohydrases Break down CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteases Break down PROTEINS
Lipases Break down FATS.
Bile (Produced by Liver) Neutralises stomach acids.

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Repiration (HUMANS/ANIMALS) Process that RELEASES ENERGY from food. Takes place in
MITOCHONDRIA.
Aerobic Respiration NEEDS OXGYEN ­ PRODUCES CO2
GLUCOSE + OXYGEN = CO2 + WATER
Anaerobic Respiration Produces LACTIC ACID + Little Energy
GLUCOSE = LACTIC ACID
Deritivores Animals that feed on Rubbish.
Carnivores Animals that eat flesh
Herbivores Animals that eat plants.
Fertilisers ADDS NITROGEN TO SOIL.
Pesticide KILLS INSECTS THAT ATTACK CROPS.
Intensive Farming Produces Maximum amount from Area.
Organic Farming Avoids use of synthetic fertilisers and pesticides.…read more

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