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DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS

Small molecules such as glucose, amino acids, water and oxygen.
Rate of diffusion depends on:
Distance
Concentration difference
Surface area

If a cell is short of water, the solution inside is more concentrated. This
means the solution outside of the cell is more dilute so the water…

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STEVENS Stored as Starch (turned into starch and stored in roots, stems
and leaves)

CARBON CYCLE
Removing CO2 from atmosphere
Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by photosynthesis.
The carbon becomes part of complex molecules such as proteins, fats and
carbohydrates in the plants.

Returning CO2 to the…

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LIPASE CONVERTS FATS INTO GLYCEROL AND FATTY ACIDS
Pancreas, small intestine
Used together with protease in biological detergents to break down
digest the substances in stains into smaller, water soluble substances

ISMOERASE CONVERTS FRUCTOSE INTO GLUCOSE
Fructose is sweeter than glucose, so it can be used in smaller amounts in…

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DNA, genes and chromosomes
DNA: (deoxyribose nucleic acid) molecules are large and complex. They carry the genetic
code that determines the characteristics of a living thing.
Except for identical twins, each person's DNA is unique. This is why people can be identified
using DNA fingerprinting. DNA can be cut up…

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Gametes and fertilisation

Gender
Human body cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes in the nucleus. One of these pairs controls
the inheritance of gender whether offspring are male or female:

Males the two sex chromosomes are different. They are XY
Females the two sex chromosomes are the same. They are…

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Male Femal
e
reproductive teste ovarie
organ s s
gametes sper eggs
m

The cells that are formed by meiosis have half as many chromosomes as the
cell that formed them. Human body cells contain 23 pairs of
chromosomes, while human gametes contain 23 single chromosomes.
The main features of…

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