Biology 1 Revision

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Year 10 Revision List
Biology 1
1. Nervous System and Endocrine System
Receptors
The Nervous System
Reflex Actions
Homeostasis
Hormones
The Menstrual Cycle
2. Diet and Exercise
Balanced Diet
Deficiency Diseases
Malnutrition
BMI
Obesity
Metabolic Rate
Cholesterol
Statins
Different Diets
3. Drugs
What are drugs?
A good medicine
Developing a new drug
Legal/Illegal ­ Which is more dangerous
Smoking
Methods of giving up
Alcohol
4. Disease
Structure of Bacteria and Viruses
Incubation period
How diseases spread
Natural Immunity
Bacterial Resistance
Vaccines
Acquired Immunity
Famous scientists
5. Adaptation to Environment
Competition
Adaptations of animals
Adaptations for predator/Prey
Seed dispersal
Adaptations for plants
6. Cloning and Genetic Engineering
Inheritance
Types of Reproduction
Cloning
New ways of cloning animals
Genetic Engineering

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Evolution
Age of the Earth
How did life begin?
Theories of: Evolution, Natural Selection, Inheritence of Acquired
Characteristics
8.…read more

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Nervous System and Endocrine System
There are 2 types of control within the body:
1. The Nervous system [NERVOUS CONTROL].
2. By Hormones [HORMORNAL CONTROL].
RECEPTORS
SENSES ORGANS SENSITIVE TO...
Sight Eyes Light
Hearing Ears Sound/ Changes in position
Smell Nose Chemicals
Taste Tongue Chemicals
Touch Skin Temperature/ Pressure
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Consists of 2 parts:
1. The Central Nervous System
The Brain and the Spinal Chord control the rest of the body so they are called the
COORDINATORS.
2.…read more

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Salivation at Food Eyes Brain Salivary Salivate
the sight of Gland
food
Pupil Light Eyes Brain Iris Pupil
Constriction contracts
HOMEOSTASIS
MEANS: TO KEEP CONDITIONS INSIDE THE BODY CONSTANT. We have homeostasis
mechanisms to control the following things:
1. The Water content of the body
We lose water by sweating and urinating.
2. The Ion content of the body
Also lost in sweat and urine.
3. The Blood sugar level
We use blood sugar for energy and we must take in carbohydrates to replace it.…read more

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THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
There are four hormones involved in the control of the menstrual cycle:
1. Oestrogen
2. Progesterone
3. FSH [FOLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE]
4. LH [LUTEINISING HORMONE]
Oestrogen and progesterone are both produced by the ovaries. FSH and LH are both
produced by the piruitary gland in the brain.
The Functions of the Hormones are as follows:
Oestrogen: Cause the lining of the womb to thicken in readiness for a possible pregnancy.
Progesterone: Maintains the uterus lining once it has thickened up.…read more

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The level of FSH IS HIGH during the first part of the cycle since its job is to cause the EGG
TO MATURE. The level of LH RISES RAPIDLY just BEFORE DAY 14 as its job is to
cause OVULATION.
OESTROGEN STIMULATES PRODUCTION OF LH.
OESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE INHIBIT THE PRODUCTION OF FSH.…read more

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Diet and Exercise
BALANCED DIETS
A balanced diet contains:
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Fibre
7. Water
Carbohydrates:
There are 2 types:
1. Starch
2. Sugar
Starch ­ Bread, potatoes.
A long chain made up of glucose molecules. Therefore it is INSOLUBLE.
The test for starch is to use iodine solution. It goes from RED to BLACK.
Sugar ­ Cakes, biscuits.
These are small SOLUBLE molecules such as glucose or sucrose.…read more

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BODY MASS INDEX
BMI=Weight (Kg)
Height (M)2
An ideal BMI = 2025
OBESITY
Obesity can cause:
1. Breathlessness
2. Sweating
3. Tiredness
4. Back and Joint Pain
It is caused by:
1. Poor diet
2. Lack of exercise.
CHOLESTEROL
Is a type of fat that is used to make new cell membranes.
It travels around your body in lipoproteins. There are two types:
1. Low density lipoproteins (LDLs) BAD CHOLESTEROL
2.…read more

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