Biology 1.6 revision notes

nucleic acids: DNA and RNA

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Nucleic Acids
Central dogma
Replication of DNA occurs just before mitosis (or
meiosis). Transcription and translation are collectively
known for protein synthesis (BY5).
DNA and RNA are polynucleic chains.
Need to remember 3 structural differences
between RNA and DNA.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Nucleotides
FOUND IN NUCLEUS
Mostly single stranded, shorter than DNA.
DNA is double stranded.
The strands run anti parallel.
This forms a double helix.
Bases in DNA
Purines (BIG) Pyrimidines (SMALL)
Adenine (A) Thymine (T)
Guanine (G) Cytosine (C)
Complimentary base pairing.
Base pairs are joined by hydrogen bonding.
2 BONDS
3 BONDS
Base pairs separate during DNA replication and during protein synthesis.

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RNA
RIBONUCLEIC ACID
NUCLEOTIDES
BASES: adenine, guanine, cytosine and URACIL.
3 TYPES OF RNA:
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Single stranded, produced in the nucleus by copying sections of DNA (gene) it diffuses into
the cytoplasm to provide the template for protein synthesis.
Transfer RNA (t RNA)
Clover lead shape, some single stranded, some double stranded RNA. Transfers amino acids
to a growing polypeptide chain.
Ribosomal RNA (r RNA)
Complex RNA molecule, combined with protein, provides scaffolding for protein synthesis on
ribosome's.…read more

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