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Biology Revision- AS level
Cells
All living things are made of cells.
Viruses are living but aren't made of cells.
The five kingdoms of life are:
1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Animals
4. Plants
5. Protists
The two main kingdoms are: -Prokangstes/ prokaryotic (Pre, nucleus)
Eukaryotes (true, nucleus)

Bacteria are…

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Nucleus
Largest organelle in the cell
Spherical and about 10cm in diameter
Surrounded by a nuclear membrane
The nuclear membrane is a double membrane, which allows materials to pass in and out of
the nucleus.
Nucleoplasm is the name given to the material inside the nucleus
The nucleus makes ribonucleic…

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Viruses
A virus's sole purpose is to
replicate itself. The way it
goes about replicating itself
kills the host cell (makes us
ill). A virus has no conscious
and it not alive. It is often
described as similar to a
computer virus.




Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and…

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Viruses have distinct structures and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Because of the absence of
cytoplasm, viruses cannot carry out any chemical reactions on their own.
They are totally dependent on the cellular machinery or other cells. As such viruses are called
parasites.




Comparison of Light
microscopes…

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Biological material L Dead
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Size S Very large and static
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Preparation of material Q Time consuming…

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l
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Cost Relatively cheap Very expensive

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