Biology 1.2 revision notes

includes all information on cells with annotated diagrams. 

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Biology Revision- AS level
Cells
All living things are made of cells.
Viruses are living but aren't made of cells.
The five kingdoms of life are:
1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Animals
4. Plants
5. Protists
The two main kingdoms are: -Prokangstes/ prokaryotic (Pre, nucleus)
Eukaryotes (true, nucleus)
Bacteria are not always small; some are big enough to see with the naked eye.
Eukaryote Prokaryote
More likely to be multi cellular Single Cellular
True nucleus No true nucleus
Bigger (tend to be)
Organelles Organelles (ribosome's)
Eukaryotes can contain:
Nucleus
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Ribosome's
(Cell wall)
(Cytoplasm)
Vacuole
Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth/rough)
Golgi body
Lysosome
Organelles

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Nucleus
Largest organelle in the cell
Spherical and about 10cm in diameter
Surrounded by a nuclear membrane
The nuclear membrane is a double membrane, which allows materials to pass in and out of
the nucleus.
Nucleoplasm is the name given to the material inside the nucleus
The nucleus makes ribonucleic acid (RNA) which is needed to make ribosome's
Mitochondria
Cells with a high energy role have more mitochondria than those with low energy roles e.g.
fat cells and muscle cells.…read more

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Viruses
A virus's sole purpose is to
replicate itself. The way it
goes about replicating itself
kills the host cell (makes us
ill). A virus has no conscious
and it not alive. It is often
described as similar to a
computer virus.
Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and are only visible with an
electron microscope. 20nm to 400nm and do not have a proper cell
structure.
These `non-cells' have no cytoplasm, no organelles and no
chromosomes.…read more

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Viruses have distinct structures and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Because of the absence of
cytoplasm, viruses cannot carry out any chemical reactions on their own.
They are totally dependent on the cellular machinery or other cells. As such viruses are called
parasites.…read more

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Biological material L Dead
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v
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g
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a
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Size S Very large and static
m
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ll
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p
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Preparation of material Q Time consuming and complex
u
i
c
k
a
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s
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p…read more

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Cost Relatively cheap Very expensive…read more

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