Biology 1

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Animal Research
Unit Biology 1: Section 11.3
how do we use/abuse medical and recreational drugs?
People cannot make sensible decisions about drugs unless they know their full effects.
Scientists are developing new drugs. These need to be thoroughly tested.
When new medical drugs are devised, they have to be extensively tested and trialled
before being used. Drugs are tested in the laboratory to find if they are toxic. They
are then trialled on human volunteers to discover any side effects.
Thalidomide is a drug that was developed as a sleeping pill. It was also found to be
effective in relieving morning sickness in pregnant women. However, it had not been
tested for this use. Unfortunately, many babies born to mothers who took the drug
were born with severe limb abnormalities. The drug was then banned, but more
recently is being used successfully to treat leprosy.
Cloning
Unit Biology 1: Section 11.6
Why are individuals of the same species different from each other? What new methods do we
have for producing plants and animals with the characteristics we prefer?
Scientists can now add, remove or change genes to produce the plants and animals they
want
To interpret information about cloning techniques and genetic engineering techniques
To make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues
concerning cloning and genetic engineering, including GM crops
Modern cloning techniques include:
Tissue culture using small groups of cells from part of a plant
Embryo transplants splitting apart cells from a developing animal embryo
before they become specialised, then transplanting the identical embryos into
host mothers
Fusion cell and adult cell cloning.
Drug Trials
Unit Biology 1: Section 11.3
how do we use/abuse medical and recreational drugs?
People cannot make sensible decisions about drugs unless they know their full effects.
Scientists are developing new drugs. These need to be thoroughly tested.
When new medical drugs are devised, they have to be extensively tested and trialled
before being used. Drugs are tested in the laboratory to find if they are toxic. They
are then trialled on human volunteers to discover any side effects.
Thalidomide is a drug that was developed as a sleeping pill. It was also found to be
effective in relieving morning sickness in pregnant women. However, it had not been
tested for this use. Unfortunately, many babies born to mothers who took the drug
were born with severe limb abnormalities. The drug was then banned, but more
recently is being used successfully to treat leprosy.

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Genetic Engineering
Unit Biology 1: Section 11.…read more

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Scientists can now add, remove or change genes to produce the plants and animals they
want.
To interpret information about cloning techniques and genetic engineering techniques
To make informed judgements about the economic, social and ethical issues
concerning cloning and genetic engineering, including GM crops
Vaccination
Unit Biology 1: Section 11.…read more

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