First 453 words of the document:
DRUGS ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY
First generation of antipsychotics were typical, and developed in Electric shock to brain to induce
1950s. Blocked dopamine receptors in the brain and so reduced the seizure-epileptic fit lasts for about a
influence of dopamine on behaviour and emotion. Reduces positive minute. Muscle relaxant and anaesthetic
symptoms such as hallucinations. to relax patient. Given 3 times up to 5
Second generation were called atypical antipsychotics, for example weeks. Only used when Sz and
Clozapine. Found to be more effective in reducing positive symptoms depression co-existing
and reduce some negative symptoms also such as reduced expressed 20-50% Sz respond positively, relapse
emotion. Clozapine blocks dopamine less and in addition acts on within 6 months- not long-term
serotonin but occupying the receptor sites. Side-effects- one third memory loss
Some suffered only take one course of chemotherapy and have no Controversial- don't understand how it
reoccurrence of symptoms. Others however, take regular doses and works so is it ethical to administer
prevent relapse. something we can't understand. Most
Effective form of treatment- cheap, easy to produce and administer. psychologists refuse to use it.
Has positive effects on sufferers and allows Sz to live relatively normal Inconclusive evidence of effectiveness-
lives outside or institutes. Tharyan and Adams- more effective than
Davis-70% improvement after 6 weeks, less than 25% when no treatment, less effective than drugs.
placebos used. Sarita- no difference in symptom
Side effects such as muscle tremors and addiction. Conventional reduction.
typical drugs- 30% risk of developing tardive dyskinesia which is Fisk- success rate 60-80%, only
irreversible in 75% of cases. Atypical- fewer side effects-5% risk of TD. effective in certain categories of Sz
Side effects lead to 30% stop taking medication after a year. This Tang- effective when drugs fail.
leads to high relapse rates.
30% don't respond at all to drugs
Suppress immune system- destroy white blood cells- more
vulnerable to disease.
Doesn't cure- just alleviates symptoms
Reductionist- Davis found individuals no significant difference
between relapse rates of people on medication and people on
placebos living in supportive homes. In hostile homes, 92% relapsed of
placebo group, 51% relapsed on medication.
Ross and Read- placebos are an unfair comparison as these patients
often experience drug withdrawals as they are flooded with dopamine
due to an heightened sensitivity or receptors. This causes relapse rates
Ethical issues with withdrawing drugs.
Must nto place vulnerable PP's at unreasonable risk of harm.
Possibility of harm heightenes when dealing with vulnerable PP's like
Schizophrenics. So researchers must deal with care.