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There are three types of biological therapies for schizophrenia, these are;
psychosurgery, ECT (Electroconvulsive therapy) and chemotherapy drug
treatments.

Drug therapy (chemotherapy)
AO1
Drug therapy is the most common treatment for schizophrenia. The drugs used
are antipsychotic drugs, also referred to as neuroleptics. There are two types
of drugs used,…

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Evaluation/effectiveness of Drugs AO2
Both typical and atypical drugs have been shown to be effective treatments
for sz. The reduction in psychotic symptoms that drug therapy produces allows
patients to lead relatively normal lives, and most can be treated on an
outpatient basis.

Effective typical drugs +
Julien (2005) showed…

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Not effective atypical drugs -
· Clozapine appears to be effective in controlling positive symptoms and does
not give rise to as many side effects as older drugs. However, it can produce a
condition in which the immune system is damaged.

Appropriateness of typical drugs
Remington & Kapur (2000)= By…

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Psychosurgery

AO1
This is the most invasive biological treatment, as parts of the brain are
removed, and the effects are irreversible. The first psychosurgical procedure
was the frontal lobotomy, which involves destroying the fibres which connect
the frontal cortex to the lower brain centres. Despite early optimism, there
was no…

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A01
The patient lies down and is given a relaxing anaesthetic. 70-130 volts are
passed through their brain for approximately 30 seconds. This is usually done by
fixing electrodes to the forehead. The current induces convulsions that last for
approximately 1 minute. Treatments are given 2/3 times a week for4…

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ECT should only be used when drug therapy has failed and there is a risk
that the patient will commit suicide.
When ECT was first introduced, there were several side effects such as
memory loss, although these have since been reduced.
ECT has a history of abuse, and was often…

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