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APPRAISAL- is the situation stressful or not?
Our immune system is made up of white blood cells known as lymphocytes which come in 2 forms:
natural and specific. Specific has 2 forms humoral B-cells and cellular T-cells.…read more

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The effect of stress has 3 main cases studies attached:
GAS ­ Selye
Cohen ­ common cold
Kiecolt-Glaser- Exam stress
GAS-SELYE: Using a rat in his investigation he made the link between chronic stress and illness. GAS=
common response to all stressors. He developed stages: 1) ALARM- blood, heart pressures rise
while energy reserves are used to do so.
3) EXHAUSTION- defence systems e.g. lymphocytes numbers are effected and so more likely to
catch a cold.…read more

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Holmes and Rahe 1967- Looked at hospital patients all with heart disease and had
reported a significant life event in the past year. The 394 ppt had to compare 43
different life events 6.g marriage=500 units. LCU = LIFE CHANGE UNITS and they
were recorded in the SRRS- SOCIAL REAJUSTMENT SCALE. There was the ethical issue
here of debriefing and the methological issue of being CULTURAL SPECIFIC!.
CONCLUSION.…read more

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Marmot et al 1997- tested the relationship between workload and control. 7000ppt all civil
servants over 5 years with self-reported questionnaires which REMEMBER could be bias and
difficult to generalise because of the one sector used. He carried out 2 separate studies-
Whithall1 with civil servants who had a low control and high demand with health problems
and found that they were vulnerable to stress and Whitehall2 who had no health problems but
yet still showed similar results.…read more

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Types: A = time pressured, competitive and hostile. B = relaxed and
hardy= control, commited and challenge thrillers.
Rosenman et al 1976- 3154ppt of middle aged men in the US who were
categorised into type A or B after an interview they were followed up for 8.5 years
and the type A's were found to have had 69% of the 257 heart attacks. CONCLUDED
that the higher a person's TAB the more likely they are to suffer with a heart attack
and disease.…read more

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SIT- Developed by Meichenbaum 1985 because he believed we have the power to change the way
we think about stressful situations. He developed stages into the positive thinking:
1) CONCEPTUALISATION- Identify the source of the stress. The client is advised to keep a diary
of stressful events
2) SKILLS TRAINING AND REHEARSAL- the client will be able to discuss an action plan to deal with
certain stressful situations also relaxation is a key component in this stage.…read more

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They are effective anti-anxiety drugs and work by increasing the action of
neurotransmitters GABA which inhibits neurotransmitters throughout the brains
pathways and so reduce stress.
+vs= relatively safe.
-ves= side effects (tiredness, sedation, impaired motor condition, LT memory
impairment) also withdrawal symptoms which lead to sleeping problems. Don't
target the source of stress.…read more

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Both Physiological and psychological can be stress management in the following
ways ...
BIOFEEDBACK- using a machine for the physiological progress e.g. heart rate. If the persons
heart rate goes above a certain level a sound will go or the person can see their heart rate
and so they are visually aware when they are stress and they can apply this to everyday life.
+ves= no side effects and harmless. Evidence by Attansio et al to support that biofeedback
works.…read more


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