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Sophie Williams Biology Project

Chemical Role
Carbohydrates Energy storage and supply, structure.

Proteins Structure, transport, enzymes, antibodies, most hormones

Lipids Membranes, energy supply, insulation, protection, electrical insulation,
some hormones
Vitamins and Parts of larger molecules, metabolic reactions, coenzymes
Nucleic Acids Information molecules

Water Many reactions, support in…

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Monomers and Polymers:

Monomer Polymer
Carbohydrates Monosaccharide Polysaccharides

Proteins Amino acids Polypeptides and
Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA and RNA

Reactions that can Make or Break Biological Molecules:

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Carbohydrates as an Energy Store:

2 Glucose molecules join together to form the
disaccharide MALTOSE (the enzyme used to join
these 2 monomers is MALTASE). Many more
glucose molecules join to form AMYLOSE.
GLYCOSIDIC BONDS occur between all the
glucose molecules at C1 and…

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Carbohydrates in Structure:

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Haemoglobin Collagen
Globular Fibrous
Soluble in water Insoluble in water
Range of amino acids makes 35% of primary structure is 1
up primary structure type of amino acid

Prosthetic group haem No prosthetic group
Alpha helix left handed helix

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Solvent Metabolic processes rely on reactions in solution 70%+ of cytoplasm is water.

Liquid Movement requires a liquid transport medium Blood and vascular tissue

Cohesion Stick to each other creating surface tension. transport in xylem

Freezing ice on surface insulates water underneath…

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Phospholipids Glycerol + 2 fatty cell membranes glycolipids in cell signalling
acids + phosphate
Cholesterol 4 carbon based rings fits into lipid bilayer steroid hormones
giving strength and


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