Slides in this set
Monosaccharides are the
CARBOHYDRATE simplest form of carbohydrates. They
have the general formula:
3 Carbon = Triose
S Examples include:
- Glucose, Fructose ,Galactose, Ribose.
5 Carbon = Pentose [e.g. Ribose]
6 Carbon = Hexose [e.g. Hexose]
THERE ARE TWO
CARBON. HYDROGEN. OXYGEN FORMS OF GLUCOSE: EXAMPLES OF EACH HAVE THE SAME
Disaccharides: Formed from -
MOLECULAR FORMULA BUT ARE
-GLUCOSE: ARRANGED DIFFERENTLY. THEY ARE
two monosaccharides in a
Polysaccharides: The result · Maltose: 2x -glucose
of multiple condensation · Sucrose: Glucose + Fructose
reactions between · Lactose: Glucose + Galactose
BENEDICTS TEST: Test for reducing sugars. starch cellulose glycogen
The bonds formed from this are
+ Benedicts agent [Blue]
GLYCOSIDIC bonds. This uses a Formed Formed from
Colour change from Blue to Red/Orange if non- Formed
water molecule in the reaction. The from - -glucose
reducing sugar present. from -
reaction can be reversed via glucose molecules
HYDROLYSIS which gives a water glucose
molecule PLANT molecules STORAGE.
Components of starch STORAGE
-glucose in 1,4 1,4 and 1,6
glycosidic bonds glycosidic
due to more 1,6
Made up of Amino Acids
PROTEIN 20 different
To break a POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN a PROTEASE ENZYME is
required. = ENZYME-CATALYSED REACTION
The order of Amino Acids in a polypeptide chain. Joined via Peptide bonds in condensation
The structure holding the polypeptide bonds with HYDROGEN BONDS. Forms Alpha Helix or Beta
When a polypeptide chain assembles together into a 3-D structure bonded by disulphide bonds,
ionic bonds, hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions.etc.
QUARTERNARY When two or more polypeptide chains assemble together to form a larger protein.
Element Bonds PEPTIDE BONDS: Join
Amino Acids in a
Oxygen 2 2x AA = Dipeptide
Disulphide Bridges: Ionic Bonds: Hydrogen Bonds: Hydrophobic Interactions:
Covalent bond Between NH3+ Between electro -
structure held Oxy. Atoms on CO
together with a between Sulphur and COO- ions Between non-polar R
groups and electro
of R-Groups of in basic AAs e.g. groups. E.g. Tyrosine
number of + H atoms on NH
Cysteine AAs. Aspartic Acid. Groups . and Valine.
FATS OILS PHOSPHOLIPIDS CHITIN
LIPID Solid at room Liquid at
Triglycerides VERY LARGE
temp room temp
1 Glycerol molecule bonded to 3 Fatty Between OH hydroxyl groups. INSOLUBLE in water
Acid chains via ester [Covalent] bonds. Condensation reaction occurs. HYDROPHOBIC Evenly Maintains
distributed charge. membrane fluidity.
4x Carbon Based
All Available bonds have rings. Basis for
Hydrogen Attached. Can stick testosterone,
to artery walls oestrogen and
Double Carbon bonds Fatty Acid "tails" spread out,
reduce Hydrogen reducing density less
saturation. Causes "kink" in likely to stick to arteries
Phospholipids Membrane Molecule Can orientate
Same structure as a triglyceride but 1 Phosphate "Head" has charge = themselves in
fatty acid chain replaced with a Hydrophilic. water
phosphate group. Fatty Acid tails + charge = Hydrophobic environments.
Energy Store Waterproofing- Waxy Protection Protects
cuticles of insects/leaves. Insulation Slow
based around delicate organs and Phospholipid Bilayer
Conserve water. heat conductors
kidneys plant seeds from Membrane
Oily skin secretions on maintain body
Provides 2x the physical damage. E.g. flexibility and transfer
mammals help prevent temperature.
energy per gram Subcutaneous fat = of lipid-soluble
water loss Important for
than shock absorber in substances across
Carbohydrates. animals.…read more
Globular proteins that are biological catalysts in reactions. They speed up
ENZYME reactions but are not used up. - they reduce the activation energy required in
a reaction, thus they can occur at lower temperatures
S They rely strongly on the maintenance of their tertiary 3-D shape as the substrate
molecules must have a complementary shape to the active site for reactions to occur.
In reaction representations, they are shown on the reaction arrow: A+B C+D
Change in Affect on Enzyme
Temp. [Increase] Increase reaction speed. High temp. reduce reaction speed as enzymes denature
[bonds holding shape break apart]
PH Changes strength of bonds holding structure. May cause denaturing
Conc. Of Increase chance of collisions and therefore reaction speed increases.
Lock and key model…read more
A polynucleotide that is usually double-stranded. Contains the organic bases:
ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE GUANINE
Nucleotides [Monomers of nucleic acids] : Made up of Phosphate, a
5-carbon sugar [e.g. Deoxyribose] and an organic base.
Sugar-phosphate strands run
5-Carbon Phosphate in opposite directions.
Sugar Causing the two strands to
Hydrogen Bonds between bases increase stability of molecule
Sugar-Phosphate Backbone form a "ladder" with the bases as "rungs"
Space between bases always the same due to them pairing up in a specific complementary way. [same
as above]. Where a pyrimidine appears on one side, a purine appears on the other.
Sequence of bases = information storage.
[e.g. building of proteins]
Long molecules = large amount of information.
Bases pairing rule = complementary strands of
information can be replicated.
Double-Helix structure = stability.
Hydrogen Bonds allow easy unzipping for
replication and information reading.…read more