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Biological Molecules:


Hydrogen bonds occur between the slightly positive (+) hydrogen of one molecule and the slightly
negative (-) oxygen of another molecule, this type of bonding is weaker than covalent bonds, but a
lot of them can make a molecule very strong.

Latent heat of evaporation:

A lot…

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Proteins are substances whose molecules are made up of amino acids, linked together in long chains.
All amino acids are made up of a central Carbon atom, which can have up to four bonds, its bonded
with a hydrogen (-H), bonded with a ­Carboxyl (-COOH) group, and an ­amino…

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Proteins are made up of lots of amino acids bonded together with peptide bonds and can therefore
be called polypeptides.

Primary Structure:

The primary structure of a protein is the amino
acid sequence of the polypeptide chain, it is
held together by covalent or peptide bonds and
disulphide bonds. The…

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In haemoglobin, one of the beta polypeptide chains wind sit self around a little group of atoms with
with an iron ion (Fe²+) at the centre. In haemoglobin the structure is curled up into a ball forming a
globular protein. Enzymes are also globular proteins.In some proteins like collagen its…

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Quaternary structure:

A haemoglobin molecule is made p of 4 polypeptide chains
these four chains fit together to make the complete
haemoglobin molecule. It is a globular protein. The shape they
produce is the quaternary structure of the protein. This shape
is held together by the same kind of bonds…

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Comparison of globular and fibrous proteins:


Globular proteins: enzymes, haemoglobin, antibodies, transporters in cell membranes, some
hormones e.g. insulin.

Fibrous Proteins: Keratin, Collagen, Elastin.

Primary structure:

Globular proteins: very precise, usually made up of a non-repeating sequence of amino acids
forming a chain that is always the same length.…

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Are substances made up of only Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen, the general formula of
carbohydrates is CnH2nOn, carbohydrates include sugars, starches and cellulose. Sugars are
Always soluble in water, and they taste sweet. Starches and cellulose, which are both examples of
polysaccharides, are insoluble in water and
do not…

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If you link thousands of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds forms the carbohydrate Amylose
which is found in starch. Starch is insoluble and metabolically inactive which means that it won't
interfere with the reactions going on around it and it doesn't affect water potential. In amylase the
molecules coil…

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Monosaccharide from which it is formed:

Amylose: -Glucose

Cellulose: - glucose

Glycogen: -Glucose

Type(s) of glycosidic bond:

Amylose: - 1-4

Cellulose: - 1-4

Glycogen: -1-4 with 1-6 at the branches

Overall shape of the molecule:

Amylose: helix

Cellulose: straight chain

Glycogen: branched and slightly coiled

Hydrogen bonding within or between…


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