Biological Molecules/ Biochemistry : AS Biology (2008 NEW OCR course)

Part of the Kenilworth School AS Biology Revision Guide for the NEW OCR specification, published by myself.

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AS BIOLOGY
REVISION GUIDE 2009 FOR UNIT 2
AS Biology
Biological Molecules (Biochemistry)
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats (Lipids)
Water (WE ALREADY KNOW THIS FROM UNIT 1)
Carbohydrates
Made from basic sugars (e.g. Glucose) ­ known as a monosaccharide.
Two monosaccharides form a DISACCHARIDE, by a condensation
(loss of Water), in between carbon 1 of on e monosaccharide, and
carbon 4 of another monosaccharide, forming a GLYCOSIDIC BOND
(O).
All carbohydrates have the formula (CH2O)n.
The simplest monosaccharide, known as GLUCOSE.
This monosaccharide is also known as alpha
glucose.
The simplest way of writing alphaglucose.
Forming the disaccharide (alphamaltose)
09matthame/asbiologyguide2009/unit2/BIOLOGICALMOLECULES
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AS BIOLOGY
REVISION GUIDE 2009 FOR UNIT 2
Polysaccharides
Amylose is simply poly(14) glucose, so is a
straight chain. In fact the chain is floppy, and it
tends to coil up into a helix.
Amylopectin is poly(14) glucose with about 4%
(16) branches. This gives it a more open
molecular structure than amylose. Because it has
more ends, it can be broken more quickly than
amylose by amylase enzymes.…read more

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AS BIOLOGY
REVISION GUIDE 2009 FOR UNIT 2
If there are no C=C double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain, then it is a saturated fatty
acid (i.e. saturated with hydrogen). These fatty acids form straight chains, and have a
high melting point.
If there are C=C double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain, then it is an unsaturated fatty
acid (i.e. unsaturated with hydrogen). These fatty acids form bent chains, and have a
low melting point.…read more

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AS BIOLOGY
REVISION GUIDE 2009 FOR UNIT 2
The sheet. The
polypeptide chain
zigzags back and
forward forming a
sheet. Once again it is
held together by
hydrogen bonds.
3. Tertiary Structure
This is the 3 dimensional structure formed by the folding up of a whole polypeptide
chain. Every protein has a unique tertiary structure, which is responsible for its
properties and function. For example the shape of the active site in an enzyme is due to
its tertiary structure.…read more

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AS BIOLOGY
REVISION GUIDE 2009 FOR UNIT 2
This diagram shows a molecule of the enzyme This diagram shows part of a molecule of
dihydrofolate reductase, which comprises a collagen, which is found in bone and
single polypeptide chain. It has a globular shape cartilage. It has a unique, very strong
triplehelix structure.…read more

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