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BIOCHEMICAL :
ENDOCRINAL (HORMONAL)
EXPLANATION OF
DEPRESSION…read more

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ROLE OF HORMONES
·Endocrine system produces hormones which regulate
many behaviours.
·Conditions with depression as the prevailing symptom,
linked to hormonal changes.
·Hormones contribute to structure and order of sleep,
growth and sexual activity.
·For women in particularly, additionally, hormones
regulate menstrual cycle. Contributing reason as to why
women are twice as likely to develop depression?…read more

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ENDOCRINAL CAUSES
AO1 - PRE-MENSTRUAL SYNDOME (PMS)
Prior a week or two to menstrual period in women, hormonal fluctuations in oestrogen and progesterone
occurs, oestrogen levels are too high whereas progesterone levels are too low.
AO1 ­ DESCRIBE/OUTLINE
Abramowitz, Baker & Fleischer studied female admissions into a psychiatric hospital. 41% of admitted
women showed depressive symptoms, were a day before or on their first day of their periods.
Halbreich et al studied females in a normal population setting, same depressive symptoms found in
43% the females during their pre-menstrual period.
AO2/AO3 ­ USE/APPLY/EVALUATE & HOW SCIENCE WORKS
·Lacks gender validity. Hormone research limited to women,, supporting endocrinal research lacks
generalizability to both genders. Varying levels of oestrogen hormones effect males differently.
·With women, oestrogen withdrawal leads to mood lowering, whereas with (Hill et al 2007) research
with male lab rats, low levels of oestrogen associated with OCD.
·However, the study uses non-human participants, Hill's findings cannot fully support gender
differences with findings derived from animals.
·If hormones were a cause for depression, ALL of the admitted and healthy females would've
experienced depressive symptoms. Indicating that there are other contributing factors to depression,
supporting evidence from the same and other approaches.
*elaborate with genetic/evolutionary, psycho-social, behaviourist factors.*…read more

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ENDOCRINAL CAUSES
AO1- POST PARTUM DEPRESSION(PPD)
AO1 ­ DESCRIBE/OUTLINE
During pregnancy oestrogen & progesterone hormones peak and rapidly fall after birth.
Symptoms of sadness, anxiety, tearfulness & insomnia are seen days after childbirth and
usually go away 10/12 days later. Extreme cases, psychoticism & infanticide occurs.
AO2/AO3 ­ USE/APPLY/EVALUATE & HOW SCIENCE WORKS
·Depression contributed to by other factors. Not wholly due to hormones, but new mothers
often subject to psycho-social difficulties, marital problems, adjusting to new family member
­ major life changes, lack of emotional support, low self esteem and unrealistic ideas about
motherhood etc.
·Gotlib et al, Previous clinical depression PPD Most mothers diagnosed with PPD, had a
history of some kind of depression before, perhaps suggesting that depression is genetic,
determined by predispositions along with hormonal imbalance?
·Cooper ­ in a comparison study with mothers diagnosed with PPD and control group of non-
mothers, found that there was little difference between the two groups. Hormones not a solid
cause for depression, catalyst perhaps?
·Nolen-Hoeksema ­ reviewed a number of PPD related cases, findings were inconsistent due
to methodological problems. Found no convincing link between adult depression and
hormones.…read more

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ENDOCRINAL CAUSES
AO1- MENOPAUSAL DEPRESSION
AO1 ­ DESCRIBE/OUTLINE
Dramatic hormonal changes as oestrogen levels drop, oestrogen is no longer
needed to stabilise a fertile environment so it's no longer produced.
Depression occurs from the lack of serotonin which requires oestrogen,
resulting in a low mood.
AO2/AO3 ­ USE/APPLY/EVALUATE & HOW SCIENCE WORKS
·Neuroendocrine factors- depressive low mood is caused by scarcity of
serotonin, a neurotransmitter, which occurs due to the scarcity of oestrogen.
Perhaps depression is caused by reciprocal dependency of both
neurotransmitters and hormones, not wholly hormones.
·Age, decrease of dopamine ­ a type of monoamine neurotransmitter,
diminishes considerably over the age of 45, often when menopause occurs,
suggests that influence of neurotransmitters, or neurotransmitters and
hormones.…read more

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Comments

Aiste - Team GR

Really helpful, precise, clear and fueled with information. Thank you :) 

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