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Biological…read more

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Prior to the 1950s...
· Primitive techniques
· Individuals restrained and kept in grim
conditions
· Surgical procedure ­ frontal lobotomy.
No evidence it got rid of symptoms, and
instead it produced severe cognitive and
emotional impairment.
· ECT was used ­ proved to be ineffective
and has been abandoned.…read more

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Drug Therapy
· Neuroleptics revolutionalised treatment of schizophrenia
· Chlorpromazine ­ tranquilised patients without sedation.
· Delay and Deniker 1952 ­ therapeutic effect on schizophrenic patients
and alleviated hallucinations and delusions.
· Work by binding to dopamine receptors ­ prevent dopamine from binding
to the receptors.
· Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are contained and there is cognitive
and behavioural improvement.
· They have allowed people to live outside of institutionalised care.
Evaluation!!
· Not effective against negative symptoms, e.g. apathy, social withdrawal
· Symptoms return if drugs are stopped
· Not effective for everyone ­ 30% don't respond
· Side effects: drowsiness, dryness of the mouth, visual disturbances and
changes in weight. Most serious ­ facial tics and lip and tongue
movements. 24% of people get this after 7 years of taking the drugs.
· Adverse effects lead to people stopping taking the drugs ­ end up back in
hospital.
· A new range ­ atypical neuroleptics. Avoid problems of older drugs.
· Regulation and monitoring of these drugs is important. Doses are
sometimes too high ­ haven't been reduced to a maintenance level after
the acute stage. This leads to unnecessary risk of side effects.…read more

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Psychological…read more

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Psychodynamic Therapy
· Rosen pioneered use of psychoanalytical therapy but
there is no evidence for its effectiveness.
EVALUATION!!
* Tarrier suggested that the over-stimulation from the
therapy can promote relapse and patients exposed to
this therapy may need longer hospitalisation and
develop worse symptoms.…read more

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