Benedict’s test used to identify reducing sugars (monosaccharides and some disaccharides)
Add Benedict’s solution to the chemical sample and heat.
The solution changes from blue to brick-red or yellow if a reducing sugar is present.
Non-reducing sugar test used to test for non-reducing sugars, e.g. the disaccharide, sucrose
First a Benedict’s test is performed.
If the Benedict’s test is negative, the sample is hydrolysed by heating with hydrochloric acid, then neutralised with sodium hydrogen carbonate.
This breaks the glycosidic bond of the disaccharide, releasing the monomers.
A second Benedict’s test is performed which will be positive because the monomers are now free.
Add iodine solution to the sample.
If starch is present the colour changes to blue-black.Emulsion test used to identify fats and oils
Add ethanol to the sample, shake, then pour the mixture into water.
If fats or oils are present then a white emulsion appears at the surface.
Biuret test used to identify any protein
Add dilute sodium hydroxide and dilute copper sulphate to the sample.
A violet colour appears if a protein is present.
This technique is used to separate out the components in a mixture. It is used to separate out the components of substances such as chlorophyll, and can be used to help identify substances. The method is outlined below:
a spot of the substance is placed on chromatography paper and left to dry
the paper is suspended in a solvent such as propanone
as the solvent molecules move through the paper the components begin to move up the paper, big molecules move slower than small ones. You need to remember that this technique separates substances in terms of the relative size of the molecules.
the small solvent molecules move through the paper faster than any of the components of the substance
the substance separates out into different spots or bands.