AQA biology unit 2 AS questions and answers

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AQA Biology Unit 2 Questions and Answers
1) What is intraspecific variation?
Variation within the same species
2) What is interspecific variation?
Variation within different species
3) What is intraspecific variation caused by?
Genetic and environmental factors
4) What do all members of the same species have?
The same genes
5) What is the genotype of an organism?
The alleles that an organism has
6) What is the phenotype of an organism?
The physical characteristics displayed by an organism
7) What affects the phenotypes of a plant?
The amount of minerals in the soil such as nitrate and phosphate
8) What is continuous variation?
A characteristic that has a range of values and is particularly influenced by environmental
9) What is discontinuous variation?
A characteristic which has discrete values as is controlled by one gene or a small number of
genes and are unaffected by the environment.
10) What does the study of variation in identical twins show?
Environmental factors
11) What is interspecific variation?
Variation between different species
12) How would you sample a population?
You would choose the sample at random to prevent bias and it must be a large sample to
allow for anomalies
13) What do standard deviation bars show?
The reliability of the mean and if they do not overlap it shows that the results were not due
to chance
14) How would you choose a plant sample in a field?

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You would divide the field into a grid and use a random number generator to choose a
1) What is the monomer of DNA?
2) What are nucleotides made up of?
Deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogenous base
3) What elements do nucleotides contain?
Carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and phosphorus
4) How do nucleotides join together?
Condensation reaction between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of
another to form a phosphodiester bond.…read more

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Genetic Diversity
1) How is genetic diversity within a population increased?
Mutations in DNA and different alleles being introduced when individuals from another
population migrate into them and reproduce (GENE FLOW)
2) What is a genetic bottleneck?
An event that causes a big reduction in population, therefore reducing the number of
different alleles in the gene pool so genetic diversity is reduced
3) What is the founder effect?
When a few organisms start a new colony.…read more

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It has lots of branches which means that it can be broken down into glucose more easily so
energy is released more quickly and it is compact.
5) What is cellulose made up of?
Long, unbranched chains of beta glucose. Strands are linked together by hydrogen bonds
which forms fibres called microfibrils which gives structural support.…read more

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What is an organ?
A group of physically linked different tissues working together as a functional unit
3) What is a system?
A group of organs working together to carry out a complex function
4) How are squamous epithelium cells adapted for their function?
Thin with not much cytoplasm. They line the alveoli and allow gases to diffuse through
5) What does phloem tissue do?
Transports sugars around the plant. Arranged in tubes made up of sieve cells, companion
cells.…read more

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By looking at the order of the bases.…read more


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