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Slide 1

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Berlioz: Harold In Italy,
Movement III
Revision summary notes from Edexcel
resources on tonality, rhythm and metre,
performing forces and their handling,
features of the period, texture, harmony,
structure and melody…read more

Slide 2

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· Berlioz: French Romantic composer
· Harold in Italy composed in 1834
· A work in 4 movements (movement III is a
· Based on poem by Lord Byron, `Childe Harold's
· Programme music
· Describes the mood of the character Harold on his
travels…read more

Slide 3

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· Allegro assai section defined by pedal C
section in bassoon
· Modal inflections (B flat)
· Serenade theme is in C
· Only strong modulation is in return of
serenade theme (bar 100) in D minor
· Music remains in C major from return of
saltarello theme (bar 136) to the end…read more

Slide 4

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Rhythm and Metre
· Compound duple time (6/8)
· Tempo of allegro assai is double that of the opening
· Melodic ideas of piccolo and oboe have accents on the
2nd beat
· Serenade mixes 3/4 with 6/8 (e.g. 3rd bar of serenade
· (bar 132) this idea is ornamented with semiquavers
· Triplet semiquavers at bar 77
· Augmentation (bar 192) as final motif is turned from
semiquavers to quavers to complete the phrase…read more

Slide 5

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Performing Forces and their Handling
· Unusual combination of instruments for the early Romantic
­ Piccolo, solo cor anglais, harp, solo viola, 4 horns, no
· Piccolo + oboe at opening represent pifferi (rustic Italian oboes)
· Violins and cellos play pizzicato and double stopping
accompaniment (to mimic guitar) during serenade ­
"performance technique" Qs in the exam!
· Clarinet uses a low chalumeaux register with broken chords (bar
· (bar 53) strings play arco (with bow) again, and play con sordini
(with mutes) in the final section
· Harp plays harmonics (indicated by circles on the score) in the end
· Solo viola part is not technically difficult, octave passages (bar 99-)
are the most demanding feature…read more

Slide 6

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Features of the Romantic Period
(in this piece)
· Programme music ­ written for poetry/folk
story/painting/ballet/other artwork
· Recurring idée fixé is reminiscent of Wagner's leitmotif
­ Definition of leitmotif:
1. A melodic passage or phrase, especially in Wagnerian opera, associated with a specific character, situation, or
2. 2. A dominant and recurring theme, as in a novel.
· Influences from folk music (pifferi, saltarello rhythms)
· Expanded orchestra size
· Use of chromaticism
· Predominantly for solo instruments (like a Romantic
concerto)…read more

Slide 7

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Slide 8

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Slide 9

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Slide 10

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