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· Berlioz: French Romantic composer
· Harold in Italy composed in 1834
· A work in 4 movements (movement III is a
· Based on poem by Lord Byron, `Childe Harold's
· Programme music
· Describes the mood of the character Harold on his
travels…read more

Slide 3

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· Allegro assai section defined by pedal C
section in bassoon
· Modal inflections (B flat)
· Serenade theme is in C
· Only strong modulation is in return of
serenade theme (bar 100) in D minor
· Music remains in C major from return of
saltarello theme (bar 136) to the end…read more

Slide 4

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Rhythm and Metre
· Compound duple time (6/8)
· Tempo of allegro assai is double that of the opening
· Melodic ideas of piccolo and oboe have accents on the
2nd beat
· Serenade mixes 3/4 with 6/8 (e.g. 3rd bar of serenade
· (bar 132) this idea is ornamented with semiquavers
· Triplet semiquavers at bar 77
· Augmentation (bar 192) as final motif is turned from
semiquavers to quavers to complete the phrase…read more

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Performing Forces and their Handling
· Unusual combination of instruments for the early Romantic
­ Piccolo, solo cor anglais, harp, solo viola, 4 horns, no
· Piccolo + oboe at opening represent pifferi (rustic Italian oboes)
· Violins and cellos play pizzicato and double stopping
accompaniment (to mimic guitar) during serenade ­
"performance technique" Qs in the exam!
· Clarinet uses a low chalumeaux register with broken chords (bar
· (bar 53) strings play arco (with bow) again, and play con sordini
(with mutes) in the final section
· Harp plays harmonics (indicated by circles on the score) in the end
· Solo viola part is not technically difficult, octave passages (bar 99-)
are the most demanding feature…read more

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Features of the Romantic Period
(in this piece)
· Programme music ­ written for poetry/folk
story/painting/ballet/other artwork
· Recurring idée fixé is reminiscent of Wagner's leitmotif
­ Definition of leitmotif:
1. A melodic passage or phrase, especially in Wagnerian opera, associated with a specific character, situation, or
2. 2. A dominant and recurring theme, as in a novel.
· Influences from folk music (pifferi, saltarello rhythms)
· Expanded orchestra size
· Use of chromaticism
· Predominantly for solo instruments (like a Romantic
concerto)…read more

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