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Behaviourist Approach

"Nurture over nature"
Conditioning, conditioning and social learning
Behaviourists leave psychologists yearning!

THREE ASSUMPTIONS!
Assumption 1: Behaviour can be explained in terms of classical
conditioning.





New behaviours are acquired through association. Ivan Pavlov first described the process of
classical conditioning in 1904, through his observations in salivation in…

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Assumption 2 Behaviour can be explained in terms of operant conditioning.
























New

behaviours are learned through reinforcement. At any time, an organism
operates on the environment resulting in positive (rewards/reinforcement) or
negative(punishment) consequences. Skinner demonstrated that an animal in a
"Skinner Box" (above) randomly moves around the box and occasionally…

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Assumption 3 Behaviour can be explained in terms of social learning theory
(SLT)

In SLT, learning is primarily through observation (indirect). Individuals observe role models and
learn about the consequences of behaviour through vicarious reinforcement. These
consequences are represented as expectancies of future outcomes and stored as internal mental
representations.…

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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY IN PRACTICE: THE BOBO DOLL STUDY

Bandura and his collegues conducted the classic "Bobo Doll" study in order to
demonstrate the way children learn aggressiveness through modelling ­ observing
someone else behaving and then imitating this behaviour.
Bandura et al (1961) arranged for some very young children…

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AVERSION THERAPY!

Aversion therapy is a psychological treatment designed to reduce a behaviour
pattern. Before aversion therapy takes place, the subject has an undesirable
behavioural trait, which the therapy removes by conditioning the subject to
associate it with undesirable stimuli, which will lead to a decrease in the
undesirable behaviour.…

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willing participants are the only ones who this therapy technique works on.

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