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Behavioural Approach to Psychopathology
Abnormal Behaviours are learnt in the same way that all behaviours are learnt, through:

Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
Social Learning

What `Behaviourists' Argue:

Behaviour is learned from the environment ­ The symptoms of psychological disorders
arise because the individual has learned self-defeating of ineffective ways of…

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Little Albert (Watson & Raynor 1920):

Aged 9 months
Exposed to series of stimuli (White rat, rabbit, monkey, masks, burning newspaper) ­
Boys reactions observed ­ Boy initially showed no fear of objects
Next time boy exposed to white rat ­ Watson made a loud noise (CS) ­ After repeatedly…

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Social Learning:

When we observe and then model behaviours, attitudes and the emotional reactions of others

We observe others being `abnormal' and then copy this behaviour

Bandura (1961) ­ Bobo Doll:

Children aged 3-6 (36 boys, 36 girls) ­ assigned to 3 groups
Two groups were exposed to either observing…

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Systematic Desensitisation (Phobias) ­ Fear Hierarchy:

Reverses (counter-conditioning) to replace the maladaptive response to a situation with
another healthier response
Create a `fear hierarchy' ­ most feared at top (hold spider) ­ least feared at bottom
(picture of spider)
Put in situation of least feared event = anxious
Encouraged to…


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