behaviour

edexcel b3 topic 2

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  • Created by: aliimz
  • Created on: 24-04-12 15:10
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Behaviour- is the action or reaction to something under certain circumstances
Anthropomorphism-behaviour observed in other animals as showing human characteristics.
Learnt behaviour= is a behaviour is an action or reflex an individual found beneficial in some
way. It is based on experiences.
Habituation- loss of response- to repeated application of stimuli
Overview
1. Young animals benefit from imprinting- better chance of survival in early more
dangerous days.
2. Imprinting- form of learning- connect with instinct; attachment and imprinted lifestyle+
other ways of survival
3. Advantages of habituation- not wasting time and energy- so you can respond to
stimuli that are alarming but not wasteful
4. Example of habituation- bird flying away from scarecrow in the middle of field- later
realise it is harmless- ignore it- carry on what they were doing
Imprinting- is when you learn something from an early
experience in life e.g. ducks which follow the first thing
they see and associate it as their mother.
Conditioning- is a learnt behaviour- learnt to associate a
desire outcome with a stimulus that is not directly linked
to the possibility of the outcome. Conditioning isn't inherited.
Classical conditioning- learning
passively (without trying) - associate a
"neutral response" with an important
one- the response is automatic and
repetitive.
Russian Ivan Pavlov
first studied condition response s
scientifically- production of saliva by dogs in response to food and other non food- in
which Pavlov provided a stimulus to the dog be it light, sound etc
Operant conditioning- Trial and error-when an animal learns actively to associate an action
with a reward or punishment- punishment isn't recommended any more for
training
Skinner's box, in which he placed a rat in a box. The box had a lever in
which if the rat pulled would provide him food. The rat learnt to pull the
lever to get food showing conditioning behaviour
Training guide dogs to stop at a roadside and wait for a command

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Training police sniffers dogs to retrieve drugs
Communication
beneficial-
Help keep group together
If one animal see's predators it can warn others
Communication of moods can avoid unnecessary fights
Baby animals can communicate their needs to their parents
Allows predators hunting in packs o coordinate their attack
Animals can communicate in many different ways such as:
Bees touch antennas when returning to hive and bees from another hive are driven away
Bees use position of sun to find flowers- waggle dance to tell others where…read more

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Shelter
Protection from predators
Parental care- feeding protecting and helping offspring to interact with others
Males want to pass on their genes- they can attract females by pheromones
Parental care- crocodiles- young newly hatched eggs that the mother buried before hand are
responded to their calls by their parents- carrying them in their mouths to the river to wash
Cuckoo female lay eggs in other species nest- cuckoo hatches, pushes out other eggs- resident
parent thinks it is their chick and feeds it- cuckoo passes…read more

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Build competition
Carnivore hunting in packs Carnivores hunting alone
Advantages Safer More food available
Easier to hunt Less competition for food
Surround and isolate the prey Helps to leave food for
Weaker animals are looked after, by other animals e.g.…read more

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By developing agriculture and domesticating herds of animals so they could stay in one
place.
What makes us different from animals?
Self aware is the idea that we know we exist
Recognise emotions.
Ability to plan.
Understand consequences of our actions.
Complex use of tools.
Can completely change the environment around us.
Communication e.g.…read more

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