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Debates: Nature Vs Nurture
This debate is concerned with the extent to which human psychological characteristics are the
products of genes or the environment. This debate can be applied to attachment, mental health,
gender, and criminality.

Nature: The primary influence on individuals are from internal sources i.e. Genes. These predispose…

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Approaches on Nature-Nurture
Social Approach

In terms of nature, it says people have evolved to act as agents in society (Milgram) and to form
groups (RCT or SIT) as these behaviours aid survival. The behaviour is now innate and is passed on
through the generations.

But the approach focuses on…

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Biological Approach

Hormones, neurotransmitters, and brain structures link with our genetic blueprint, as do maturational
processes. The genes we inherit will determine the way our brain works/level of intelligence and the
environment we are brought up in will have little impact on this. Genes derive much of our sexuality

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Child Psychology

Babies are born with a tendency to form attachments and to develop language, among other
features. Children are also believed to have an innate temperament that influences their attachment
type to some degree, i.e. unsociable babies are more likely to develop Type A than irritable Type C,

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or nurture would be the focus, it will gather quantitative data thus being reliable but perhaps
not valid.
But an idiographic focus looks at individual behaviour that is whole and real for a person,
which is likely to mean taking both someone's nature and their nurture experiences into
account; not…

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Cross Cultural Studies
If differences in behaviour are down to nurture, there will be differences found between cultures
however it is generally believed that human beings are similar in nature, and so there should be more
similarities than differences.

However this is hard as there are nature differences between people…

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Social Control
All societies have rules, norms and customs which we are expected to learn through socialisation. In
general people conform to this by using their own internal social control. However there are
occasions when social control is thought to be needed; we will focus on aspects of the biological,…

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E: Clinicians often prescribe psychoactive drugs to treat a disorder without fully explaining or
considering the negative side effects for the client. These side effects can be severe and sometimes
worse than the illness itself i.e. antipsychotics and tardive dyskinesia/ weight gain.

Drugs are often given when it is felt…

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Classical Conditioning and social control
Aversion therapy and systematic desensitisation are used to treat phobias or addiction by teaching
clients to associate an unconditioned stimulus (emetic drug, phobia) and response (fear, sickness)
with a neutral stimulus (i.e. alcohol or relaxation) to produce a conditioned response that removes
the issue of…

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into their condition. However therapists may argue that those suffering from mental disorders are
not usually in a state where insight can be achieved so imposing an explanation is kinder.

Forcing a client to undergo a treatment/therapy through threatening sectioning is unethical but may
often be genuinely in the best…


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