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Holophytic nutrition: typical green plant nutrition ie.
Autotrophic: a self-feeding organism.
Heterotrophic: an organism that feeds on others eg. Humans.
Parasite: an organism that lives in or on a living organism called
the host.
Saprotroph: an organism that feeds on dead or decaying matter
eg. fungi.

Testing for…

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70% of the human body is made up of water.
It cools the body down when it overheats by the water in sweat
It can help flush toxins out of the human body when we are ill.
Water is also a useful means of transport of substances around…

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POLYSACCHARIDES- `many or multiple sugars'

n=large number, often thousands
Starch is found only in plants. It is made up of many glucose
molecules (made in photosynthesis) chemically bonded together.
Unlike sugar, it is not soluble, but is a convenient store or reserve
of glucose ie. Potential energy.
When a…

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PROTEINS- all very large molecules, which contain the four
elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Can additionally
include iron, sulphur and phosphorus. FeNCHOPS. Used by the
body for growth and repair.

Like polysaccharides, proteins are polymers (long chains made up
of smaller `building block' molecules). Proteins are made up of…

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At high temperatures, the complimentary shape of the enzyme's
active site is distorted with heat, as enzymes are proteins. This
means that the substrate is no longer a perfect match, therefore
the enzyme is denatured and will no longer function with the

Beyond optimum temperatures there is so much…

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Salivary amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose.
Mechanical breakdown by teeth increases the surface area for
enzyme action and facilitates swallowing.
Muscular waves called peristalsis more the food along the
In the stomach:
Protein Polypeptides

Hydrochloric acid kills bacteria in food and creates the optimum ph

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antibodies and blood proteins to all the cells in your body.

At the centre of the blood system is the heart, it pumps the blood
around the body.
ARTERIES carry blood away from the heart
VEINS carry blood towards the heart
When arteries get to the organs, they branch out…

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much lower than in arteries, so the blood flows much slower
through them. The blood is often squeezed along by the muscles.
The flow of blood in the veins is helped by valves. They are like
double doors that will only open in one direction; they stop the
blood going…


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