Basic overview of medicine through time

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Page 1

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Key Points

Public Health
Small cities (less than 20000 people, less problems)
Better sewers, however some went directly into rivers
Good harvests
More food
Timber lined drains
More fresh water supplied from aqueducts ( channels dug in ground and
lined with clay) Water distributed by timber…

Page 2

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Limited effects of laws
Public toilets weren't always used
Shared toilets
Rich people had better health as they had their own baths and privies
Monks and nuns had good standards of hygiene
Town councils recognised the importance of public health
Major cities had fresh water supplies
People tried to clean…

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Population growth and shift
Better ships and transport
Sewers often ran into rivers where people accessed "clean water"
Clean water but not everyone has access to this. Some water is
Rats are a problem
Steam power
Fossil fuels
Animals spread germs
People in country have higher…

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Infant mortality decreases ­ health visitors, medical checks, meals
provided, regulations etc
NHS set up by Bevan in 1948 after Beveridge's report in 1942
Government campaigns
Better disposal of sewage etc
1956 clean air act
1990 food safety laws
1971 cigarette warnings
Lifestyle diseases e.g. cancer and heart problems


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1842 Edwin Chadwick produces a report on living conditions and health
of the poor people in the countryside or towns. Concludes that poverty
and ill health is caused by foul living conditions and the best way to
reduce cost of ratepayer is to improve public health. Recommends
drainage, collection and…

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General beliefs and causes of disease
It was thought that evil spirits caused disease ­ trephenning was used
They believed in that Asclepius was the God of healing
Believed in deities ­ Diana of childbirth, Salus of health and fertility.
Aesculapius of medicine and…

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Greek surgeons could set bones or amputate on a basic level.
Sometimes they drained lungs of those with pneumonia
War meant they developed extremely basic antiseptics to wash wounds
Philosophical approach, more interested in theories than practical
Few doctors in Roman Britain ­ on the edge of…

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bladder stones removed
fractured limbs were set
There were licensed healers such as physicians and apothecaries,
surgeons and midwives
There were unlicensed healers such as family members, wise women,
travelling quacks and housewife physicians
Purer glass enables better microscopes for Pasteur and Koch
Industrial processes made work easier for…

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Soup, unripe grapes, mince meat, cooled water, rosewater in the eyes,
and gargling mouth with pomegranate juice for smallpox and measles
Seeds of skullcap used for headaches
Lentils, sumach, drachums and roses used for inflammation
Touch used to cure skin diseases,
Urine charts used
Medicines developed
Blood letting, vomiting and…

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Women could not go to university and therefore could not train as
Some women understood medicine but considered as wise and
accused of being witches
Could be midwifes
Treated family members within the homes
Women were allowed as nurses in hospitals, had to be over 50 so…


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