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Fiona Headley

Basic chemistry
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

There are two types of properties of substances; chemical and physical.

Physical properties are properties that can be observed without changing the identity of

the substance, so basically it is the same thing in a different…

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Fiona Headley

Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells surrounding the


Metals are on the left and middle of the periodic table, non-metals are on the right.

Metalloids are semi-metals found on the border between the metals and non-metals on

the periodic table.


Page 3

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Fiona Headley

Properties of metals, non-metals
and metalloids
Physical properties of metals:

o Conduct electricity when solid or liquid

o Malleable and ductile

o Solid at room temperature except for mercury

Chemical properties of metals:

o Form cations

o Metal + acid salt + hydrogen

o Metal + water hydroxide…

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Fiona Headley

Forces and energy
There are four types of forces; strong nuclear, weak nuclear, gravitational and


An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms.

Cations are positive ions that are formed when an element loses electrons.

Anions are negative ions that are formed when an element…

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Fiona Headley

Mass is usually measured in grams (g).

Volume is usually measured in cm3.

A mole (mol) is the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12g of 12C.

The Avogadro constant is the number of particles in a mole; 6.02 x 1023

Chemicals react in mole ratios.



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