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Approach Studies Important Background Research/Information/Theories
Social Reicher and Haslam:
RH wanted to replicate the Stanford Prison Experiment by Zimbardo in an ethical way
Wanted to test the situational hypothesis that the situation can affect behaviour e.g
Psychology The BBC Prison Study abuse of prisoners in Abu Ghraib, Iraq, can it be explained by situation?
Milgram: Behavioural study of
Events such as genocide of 6 million Jews in Nazi Germany sparked research into
obedience and processes behind obedience, crimes against humanity.
obedience Milgram favoured a situational hypothesis to explain obedience of an inhumane leader,
Piliavin: Good Samaritanism: Death of Kitty Genovese in 30 minute attack where 38 witnesses refused to help inspired
an underground phenomenon? studies on bystander behaviour, helping behaviour.
Bystander effect, Genovese syndrome
Supported by Social Learning Theory which claims individuals learn by imitating role
Developmenta Bandura: Transmission of
aggression through imitation
models and identifying behaviours that reap rewards/punishments.
l of aggressive models.
Allows to debate nature/nurture on aggression, are we born aggressive or does our
upbringing affect our behaviour?
Samuel & Bryant: Asking only Replicating study by Rose and Blank into conservation by challenging Piaget's method
one question in the (asking pre and post transformation questions)
Oedipus complex suffered by Hans, participant. Conflict between boy's desire for mother
Freud: Analysis of a phobia in and fear that father will punish this by castrating him occurs during phallic stage of
a 5 year old boy. development.
Psychosexual stages of development: oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage.
Stages of sleep:
Stage 12 = light sleep, irregular EEG patterns
Physiologica Dement & Kleitman: The
relation of eye movements
Stage 3 4 = deeper sleep, regular EEG pattern
Period of REM sleep
during sleep to dream
Want to establish link between sleep and dreaming
Restoration theory: NREM restores bodily processes, REM stimulates protein synthesis
Evolutionary theory: survival function, keeping animals safe from predators
Experiment done on splitbrain patients whose corpus callosum had been severed to ease
Brain divided into 2 hemispheres, joined by fibres, left hemisphere controls language and
and unity in conscious
understanding it, right hemisphere controls spatial awareness, images etc.
Experiment by Wernicke established difference in roles for hemispheres
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Maguire et al: Navigation
related structural changes in Previous research shows small mammals/birds who require navigational skills have larger
the hippocampi of taxi hippocampi voume.
drivers. Investigates whether environment related changes to brain structure affect humans.
Loftus & Palmer: Although eye witness testimony is very convincing to juries, research into memory
Reconstruction of suggests there are factors which may make them unreliable.
Cognitive automobile destruction: an
example of the interaction
Information received during an event, and after an event shapes memory of event.…read more