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B5(a) Skeletons

New born- Big heads, turned out legs
Children- Legs straighten
Adult- Head in proportion

Rheumatoid arthritis causes warm, swollen, bent out joints.

Rickets is caused by a vitamin deficiency. The sufferer requires sun light. This usually
occurs in children and causes the legs to bow.


Page 2

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Cartilage is a soft cushioning substance which covers the ends of the bones. It acts as a
shock absorber and reduces the rubbing of the bone surface.

Advantages of an internal skeleton-
Provides a frame work for the body
Can grow with the body
It is easy to attach muscles…

Page 3

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There are different types of facture of bones;
Green stick

X-rays are used to detect fractures and diagnose them before treatment. Old people
with osteoporosis are more susceptible to fractures, which can occur as they are frail and
more likely to fall.

A simple fracture is where the…

Page 4

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Paramedics and bones

You are not to move a patient who has a suspected bone fracture, especially if it is in the
back or neck as the spinal cord could become injured.


A joint is where two or more bones meet, joined by ligaments. The bones are moved by…

Page 5

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There are three types of joint;
Fixed joint
Hinge joint
Ball and socket joint

An example of a fixed joint is in the skull.

Hinge joints are found at the elbow and at the knee and allow movement in one
dimension, or direction.

Ball and socket joints are found at…


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