B5(a) Skeletons

Class notes on OCR Gateway GCSE BIology B5(a) Skeletons

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B5(a) Skeletons
New born- Big heads, turned out legs
Children- Legs straighten
Adult- Head in proportion
Rheumatoid arthritis causes warm, swollen, bent out joints.
Rickets is caused by a vitamin deficiency. The sufferer requires sun light. This usually
occurs in children and causes the legs to bow.
Types of skeleton
Some animals, such as worms, do not have a skeleton made of hard material. Some
animals, such as insect have an external skeleton made of chitin. Some animals such as
humans have an internal skeleton.
Internal skeletons may be;
Made of cartilage only, like sharks
Made of mainly bone with some cartilage (such as ear, nose and the ends of long

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Cartilage is a soft cushioning substance which covers the ends of the bones. It acts as a
shock absorber and reduces the rubbing of the bone surface.
Advantages of an internal skeleton-
Provides a frame work for the body
Can grow with the body
It is easy to attach muscles
It has good flexibility
Cartilage and bone are living tissues. They are susceptible to infection but can grow and
repair themselves.
Long bones are hollow, which makes them stronger than solid bones.…read more

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There are different types of facture of bones;
Green stick
X-rays are used to detect fractures and diagnose them before treatment. Old people
with osteoporosis are more susceptible to fractures, which can occur as they are frail and
more likely to fall.…read more

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There are three types of joint;
Fixed joint
Hinge joint
Ball and socket joint
An example of a fixed joint is in the skull.
Hinge joints are found at the elbow and at the knee and allow movement in one
dimension, or direction.
Ball and socket joints are found at the shoulder and the hip and allow movement in three
dimensions, or directions.…read more


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