B5 - Revision Notes

The key things for B5 ( Without Menstrual cycle and Kidneys )

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  • Created on: 02-06-12 10:33
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B5 ­ Revision Notes
Bones and Cartilage
Exoskeleton and Endoskeleton are different types of the skeleton outside skeletons
and internal skeletons:
Exo ­ Snail
Endo Human
Cartilage: Bones have cartilage at the top of the bone because this stops the bones
from rubbing together and causing pain and stop the bones from wearing away.
Cartilage goes under ossification to harden into bone and also to grow, this happens
when you are a baby because all babies' bones are cartilage before they are born.
Bones can be damaged when they are fractured/broken because of a fall or dieses
such as osteoporosis.
Joints and Muscles
The types of joints on and around the bone stop the bone from creating pain by
rubbing together or breaking apart. The types of joints are:
Ligaments hold the bones together
Cartilage stops the bones from rubbing together
Synovial Fluids are used to lubricate the bones and joints
Muscles that work together to move the limb are caused antagonistic pairs e.g the
biceps and triceps work together to move the arm, this is done by one contracting
while the other contracts.
When the Biceps are relaxing and eth Triceps contracting the arm becomes
straight however when the biceps are contracting and the Triceps are relaxing
the arm becomes bent.
Joints can be replaced by artificial ones when they are dysfunctional or broken.
However they may have some disadvantages such as:
They can become infected from bacteria that they have brought into the body
from the outside
Could be rejected by the body
Could alter lengths of limbs
Have to be replaced every 1215 years
Heart Disease
There are many different types of heart disease but the ones that you need to know
for GCSE are:
The hole in the heart: The oxygenated blood leaks into the opposite side of the heart
could cause a decrease in blood pressure, a lack of oxygen travelling round the body
and very severe ones could lead to back flow and heart attacks. However because
they are manly in new born babies they are acted on straight away.
Damaged valves: These could cause higher blood pressure which could lead to heart
failure and a lack of oxygen moving around the body.
To help these problems you could receive medical help such as:
Transplants
Pacemakers
Or heart assistant devices
Operations
There are many causes to heart disease these include:
Bad diets
Excess drinking ( Alcohol )

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Smoking Excessively
Stress Levels
Drug Abuse
Lack of Exercise
Circulatory System
Humans have a double circulatory system which means that oxygenated blood
moves around the body via one half of the heart while the other half of the heart sends
deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up the oxygen for the muscles via a process
called diffusion.…read more

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Heart
Pulse Rate increase when the amount of adrenaline goes up because it has been
released, this increase blood flow around the body which increase the amount of
oxygen transported to the working muscle.
Pacemaker Cell: SA node sends electrical impulses to the AV node and also makes
the atria contact, the Av node then makes the Ventricles contract forcing the blood out
of the heart and around the body and to the lungs.…read more

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Life Style Choices (Smoking)
- Asthma…read more

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