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B5- Biology
(revision)…read more

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· The skeleton (all the bones in the
body) provides support, protection
of vital organs and movement/
· External skeleton= a hard covering
on the outside, e.g shell.
· Internal Skelton= on the inside, e.g
humans. Advantages= easily grows
with the body, muscles can easily
attach to it, and it's more flexible.…read more

Slide 3

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· Bones are made of living tissue.
· Long bones are hollow which makes
them lighter and stronger (actually
filled with bone marrow- where
red/white blood cells are made).
· Ossification= when calcium and
phosphorus turn cartilage into bone
(mostly when growing up).
· Osteoporosis= when calcium is lost
from the bones making them brittle
(common in older people).…read more

Slide 4

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Joints · Ball and Socket (hip/
shoulder), all directions
· Ligaments= tissue that and rotate.
holds together bones at
joints (have tensile strength · Hinge (knee/ elbow)
and are elastic like). backwards and
· Cartilage is at the end of forwards.
bones to stop rubbing and is
a shock absorber.
· The synovial membrane at
the joint releases synovial
fluid for lubrication.…read more

Slide 5

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· Tendon= tissue that attaches the bone to
the muscle.
· Antagonistic pairs= muscles that work
together, they pull but can't push and move
by contacting and relaxing.
Joints can be replaced by artificial ones
-Body can badly react to it, tissue becomes
-Dislocations are common.
-Risk of infection.
-Don't last forever.…read more

Slide 6

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The Heart
· Humans have a double circulatory system= the
blood flows in two circuits, pumped to lungs
returns to heart pumped to rest of body.
· Single circulatory system= blood only flows in one
circuit (found in fish).
· Blood travels around the body in Arteries,
Capillaries and Veins. As it travels it goes from a
high pressure to a low pressure.
· Claudius Galen believed blood was made by the
heart and liver, blood travelled as the heart
sucked it through veins and then was consumed
by the organs.
· William Harvey showed the heart pumped blood,
what valves did and that same blood was
circulated over and over.…read more

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