B.5 Vitamins

This is a short presentation composed by a friend of mine and myself. The information contained inside are based on "Chemistry for the IB Diploma 2014 Edition" by Geoffrey Neuss and "Pearson Baccalaureate Higher Level Chemistry Second Edition" by Catrin Brown and Mike Ford (and a short definition from Wikipedia). I hope this will help you in your studies. Cheers.

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  • Created by: Udrajaka
  • Created on: 17-11-15 13:19
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B.5 Vitamins
Presentation by Rhein and Jaka

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Organic micro-nutrients substances required in very small amounts
Contained in vitamins and organic compounds
In small amount (mg or m)
Soluble in water and lipid
Mostly cannot be synthesized by body (vitamin D is an exception) and also
sensitive to heat
Function as cofactor of enzymes to help growth and metabolism
Include trace minerals (Fe, Cu, Zn, F, I, Se, Mn, Mo, Cr, Co, and B)…read more

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Classified as
1. Fat soluble (A ,D, E, F, and K)
a. Non-polar molecules with long hydrocarbon chains or rings
b. Slower to be absorbed and usually the excess is stored in fat tissues
as fat where it can cause serious side-effects
2. Water soluble (C and B)
a. Have polar bonds, enabling the vitamin to form hydrogen bonds with
b. Transported through blood and excess are filtered by the kidneys and
c.…read more

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Vitamin A (Retinol)
Fat soluble
Hydrocarbon chain and ring are
non-polar and influence the
solubility more than the one ­
OH group
Involved in the visual cycle in the
eye, and particularly important
for vision in low light intensity
Deficiency can worsen eyesight…read more

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Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Water soluble due to the large
number of polar -OH
­ OH groups enable hydrogen
bonds to form with water
Acts as cofactor in some
enzymic reactions, important in
tissue regeneration, and
resistance to some diseases
Deficiency can cause scorbutus
/ scurvy…read more

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Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Fat soluble
Large hydrocarbon molecule
with 4 non-polar rings and 1 -OH
Chemically similar to cholesterol
Stimulates the absorption of
calcium ions by cells
Deficiency can cause rickets…read more

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Malnutrition the absence of a regular, balanced supply of the diverse
nutrients (including vitamins) needed in the diet which may lead to diseases
Caused by :
Lack of distribution of global resources
Depletion of nutrients in the soil and water
Lack of education about the importance of a balanced diet
The use of chemical treatments such as herbicides in food production…read more

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Combating Malnutrition
Vitamin fortification (or enrichment) is the process of adding micronutrients
(including essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
Vitamin A is an antioxidant and is needed for healthy eyesight. Vitamin B is a
term for a group of eight distinct water-soluble vitamins. Their deficiency
causes a range of diseases including beriberi, forms of anaemia, and mental
disorders. Vitamin C deficiency is characterized by lower resistance to
infection and can develop into scurvy.…read more

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Combating Malnutrition
Solutions to combat malnutrition:
Eating fresh food rich in vitamins and minerals
The fortification of different foods with micronutrients
The availability of vitamin supplements in many forms
Genetic modification of food to improve nutrients contained in it
Increased labelling of foods with content information
Education regarding the nature of a balanced diet and promotion of the
importance of personal responsibility in dietary choices…read more

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Works Cited
Brown, Catrin, and Mike Ford. Pearson Baccalaureate Higher Level Chemistry.
2nd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited, 2014. Print.
"Food Fortification." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2015.
Neuss, Geoffrey. Chemistry: For the IB Diploma. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014. Print.…read more


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