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Module 4: It's a Green World
B4A:Who planted that there?
Structure of a plant cell




Structure of Inside a Leaf
Underlined= Name
Small font underneath= Definition
Brackets= Way in which it increases rate of photosynthesis.




Efficient Photosynthesis
Broad- large surface areas
Thin- short distance for gases to travel
Contain Chlorophyll-…

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Leaf Palisade Cell- contains many chloroplasts- traps sunlight between palisade mesophyll and spongy
mesophyll

B4B; Water, water everywhere.
Osmosis- a type of diffusion
The net movement of water molecules from an area of high water
concentration (dilute solution) to an area of low water concentration
(concentrated solution) across a partially-permeable…

Page 3

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Transpiration/water loos from leaves- consequence of adaptations for efficient
photosynthesis
Provides plants with water for Cooling, Photosynthesis, Support, The
Movement of Mineral Ions

How is structure of leaf adapted to reduce excessive water loss?
1)Waxy cuticle- Impermeable to water loss
2) Stoma- found mainly on lower epidermis to reduce transpiration-…

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Item B4C; Transport in Plants
XYLEM-Transports water/ dissolved minerals which are taken in by roots and moved up to leaves and shoots
where water is lost by transpiration.
PHLOEM-Transports dissolved food substances/ sugars around plant. Unlike transport of water- may be
transported up/ down stem. Can move from leaves (where…

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Transpiration
The loss of water from surface of leaf by evaporation
Helps cause water to be moved up xylem vessels.

B4D; Minerals and Plants
Why do plants need minerals?
1) Nitrogen
needed to make amino acids/ proteins (for cell growth) and bases for DNA
2) Phosphorous
needed to make DNA/cell…

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only a little energy (ATP) so little active uptake.
A few ions DIFFUSE (not active transport) into roots- will stop when concentration in root is
greater.

B4E; Energy Flow
Ultimate energy source- the sun-
Plants use solar energy for photosynthesis- trap energy for rest of food chain.
Food chain- linear…

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How is biomass used?
Eating it, feeding to livestock, fuel, growing the seeds

B4F- Farming
Intensive Farming;
trying to produce as much food as possible from the land, plants and animals available.
Done by use of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides
increase in worlds population=rise in food production
Problems
-harm…

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Many cases the organism used as a predator, becomes the pest
Effects food chains by removing the pest organism.
Inability to control predators once released

B4G; Decay
Factors effecting Rate of Decay
1) Temperature
As temperature increases ( up to 37) rate of decay increases as enzyme controlled reactions increase…

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