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Biology Modules: B4, B5 and B6
B4 ­ Homeostasis:

The basics of homeostasis:

Homeostasis ­ Maintaining a constant internal environment.
o Keeping everything functioning properly.
o Water content ­ Balance between water you gain (food, drink and respiration) and
the water you lose (wee, sweat and breathing out). Managed by…

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o Cells need oxygen and dissolved foods, lower concentration in cells than blood so it
diffuses out of cells and into blood.

Osmosis and Active Transport:

Osmosis is a special case of diffusion.
o Osmosis is the overall movement
of water from a dilute to a more
concentrated solution through…

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Controlling Body Temperature:

Body temperature must be kept constant.
o Most reactions in the body work best at around 2-3 degrees.
o Hypothalamus regulates temperature using negative feedback.
When you're too hot.
o Blood vessels go to skins surface and get a bigger diameter to lose heat.
o Sweat,…

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o Ecstasy increases ADH secretion so more water is reabsorbed so concentrated urine.

B6 - Growth and Development

DNA - Making Proteins

DNA is a double helix of paired bases.
o Each strand made of small groups called nucleotides.
o Each nucleotide is a small molecule "base."
o Bases A-T…

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o You now have 2 mini cells.
o In each mini cell, the chromosomes line up and the arms are pulled apart.
o You get four gametes with only a single set of chromosomes in it.

Development from a single cell

Cells in an early embryo can turn into any…

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o When a shoot is exposed to light the auxin accumulates on the shady side, making
cells elongate and push the tip towards the light.
Auxins help cutting grow into a complete plant.
o Rooting powder contains auxin which means the plant will produce shoots rapidly and
start growing as…

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Reflexes are involuntary responses.
o Rapid, automatic responses to certain stimuli.
o They can protect you or help you.
The reflex arc goes through the central nervous system.
o The neurones in the reflex arc go through spinal cord or unconscious part of the brain.
o Let's say you…

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Learning Skills and Behaviour:

Being able to learn means you can adapt to new situations.
o Simpler animals have fewer pathways, so they are more predictable and less
Some skills only develop at certain ages.
o Learning to talk has to happen roughly before about 10, after that, the…










these are fantastic!!! I don't suppose you have P4, P5 and P6? But thank you so much! :D



This is fantastic! 

Thank You sooooo much :-)




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