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B3-2 : Transporting Substances Around the
The Circulatory System

The blood circulation system we have is made up of
three main components: blood vessels, the heart and the blood. It is
made up of two different blood systems ­ a double circulation. The
diagram shows that one transports blood…

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The arteries (left diagram)carry blood away from the heart to the organs
in the body. This is usually oxygenated blood, explaining the red tubes.
When you feel your pulse, that is the arteries stretching as blood is forced
through them and returning back into their original shape.

The veins carry…

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Urea, a waste product formed in the liver is carried in the plasma to the
kidneys. In the kidneys, urea is removed from the blood and transformed
into urine. All the small, soluble products of digestion pass into the blood
from the gut, which are carried around the body by…

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When resting, your muscles are using up a certain amount of oxygen, but
when exercising your muscles contract harder and faster, so need more
glucose and oxygen to supply their energy needs. More carbon dioxide is
obviously produced ­ which has to be removed to keep muscles working
efficiently. So…

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Another example is that water balance in the body must be maintained
because too much water (turgid) or too little water (flaccid) in cells can
destroy them ­ so the kidneys can remove excess water and release it from
the body in urine. Similarly, the kidneys can remove excess salt…

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from the body, leading to death. There are two ways we can deal with this
problem, the first being dialysis. The machine used in dialysis is called the
dialysis machine, and relies on a process called dialysis to clean the blood.
A person's blood leaves their body and flows into…

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Unfortunately, the majority of the time this is not the case. One issue is
that the kidney the recipient receives was not originally theirs, so the
antigens on its surface will differ from the antigens they already have. Of
course, the problem with this is that the recipient's immune system…


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