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Active transport uses energy from respiration

Oxygen diffuses into blood

Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood into air

Alveoli-capillaries-gases rapidly diffuse out

Villi -active transport + diffusion) digestion


carbon dioxide- diffusion
water +minerals absorbed root hair cells


Blood plasma transport ->

carbon dioxide ­ organs to lungs…

Page 2

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Arteries dilate so increased blood flow to the muscles, which means
increased oxygen and glucose supply
Increases the rate of carbon dioxide removal - good for RESPIRATION
Glycogen gets broken down into glucose which the muscles use as
energy for respiration
Heat removed from the body through sweat


Page 3

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Others believed boiling killed `vital principal' in air so nothing could
live there

Schwann 1836/7 ­ air goes through red- hot glass tubes, through
string sulphuric acid- amount of oxygen stays the same but living
things are killed

They passed sterile air through boiled broth- nothing grew

When they exposed…

Page 4

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Sugar solution -> fermented

Then > Hops added beer flavour

Wine making -> yeast -> natural sugars (grapes) -> energy source

Yoghurt ->

Starter bacteria to warm milk
Bacteria fermented the milk sugar (lactose) = lactic acid
Lactic acid -> milk clot + solidify = yoghurt


Biogas generators:


Page 5

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Removes unwanted waste from landfill sites

Disadvantages of biogas:
can take a long time to produce
Initial start-up is costly
storage facilities are needed

Biogas ­mainly methane

Anaerobic fermentation ­ plants produce products or waste material
containing carbohydrates

Waste material ­ sugar factories + sewage works = energy individual

Page 6

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Cleaner than pure petrol
Reduces use of fossil fuels
More plants are grown which reduces carbon dioxide in atmosphere
Car manufacturers receive boost as new cars are developed to run
on it
Cheaper than pure petrol
Sugar cane industry rewarded financially

Disadvantages of gasohol:
Consumption higher
burns at higher temperatures…


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