B3 spec check, also useful notes

very short notes that i have gathered that may help 

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  • Created on: 07-05-11 22:34
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Active transport uses energy from respiration
Oxygen diffuses into blood
Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood into air
Alveoli-capillaries-gases rapidly diffuse out
Villi -active transport + diffusion) digestion
carbon dioxide- diffusion
water +minerals absorbed root hair cells
Blood plasma transport ->
carbon dioxide ­ organs to lungs
soluble products from digestion- small intestine- organs
Red Blood cells have no nucleus
Energy released from respiration enables muscles to contract
Arteries supplying blood to muscles dilate ->
increase blood flow= increase supply of sugar + oxygen =
increased co2 removal
Glycogen stored in muscles used at exercise
Muscles-> fatigued-> stop contractions efficiently -> not enough oxygen
to muscles ­ anaerobic respiration -> energy
Anaerobic respiration- incomplete breakdown of glucose = lactic acid
less energy
oxygen debt ­ oxidise lactic acid = co2 + water
Advantages of increased heart rate and breathing rate:

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Arteries dilate so increased blood flow to the muscles, which means
increased oxygen and glucose supply
Increases the rate of carbon dioxide removal - good for RESPIRATION
Glycogen gets broken down into glucose which the muscles use as
energy for respiration
Heat removed from the body through sweat
Healthy Kidney -> Urine
filtering the blood
reabsorbing all sugar
reabsorbing dissolved ions needed by body
reabsorbing needed amount of water
releasing urea + excess ions + water = urine
Sugar + dissolved ions = actively…read more

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Others believed boiling killed `vital principal' in air so nothing could
live there
Schwann 1836/7 ­ air goes through red- hot glass tubes, through
string sulphuric acid- amount of oxygen stays the same but living
things are killed
They passed sterile air through boiled broth- nothing grew
When they exposed normal air to broth- moulds and other microbes
Opponents said AGAIN they had destroyed something in air
Pasteur 1st micro-organisms are responsible for fermentation ­ yeast
Carried out a series of experiments with swan…read more

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Sugar solution -> fermented
Then > Hops added beer flavour
Wine making -> yeast -> natural sugars (grapes) -> energy source
Yoghurt ->
Starter bacteria to warm milk
Bacteria fermented the milk sugar (lactose) = lactic acid
Lactic acid -> milk clot + solidify = yoghurt
Biogas generators:
Advantages of batch generators:
Useful for small scale production
Can be easily cleaned if contaminated
Disadvantages of batch generators:
Takes time and energy to set up
can take a long time for methane to be produced…read more

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Removes unwanted waste from landfill sites
Disadvantages of biogas:
can take a long time to produce
Initial start-up is costly
storage facilities are needed
Biogas ­mainly methane
Anaerobic fermentation ­ plants produce products or waste material
containing carbohydrates
Waste material ­ sugar factories + sewage works = energy individual
Ethanol-based fuels ­
Anaerobic fermentation -> sugar cane juices + glucose = maize starch ­
Distilled ­ motor vehicle fuels
Micro-organisms -> fermenters -> antibiotics
Industrial fermenters -> air supply ­ provide oxygen…read more

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Cleaner than pure petrol
Reduces use of fossil fuels
More plants are grown which reduces carbon dioxide in atmosphere
Car manufacturers receive boost as new cars are developed to run
on it
Cheaper than pure petrol
Sugar cane industry rewarded financially
Disadvantages of gasohol:
Consumption higher
burns at higher temperatures than petrol so engines need modifying
alcohol can corrode metal so fuel tank needs protecting
· Biodiesel still needs to be blended with regular diesel to work
properly.…read more


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