B3: Kidneys (Dialysis + Tranpslants included)

This is a document mainly for students taking AQA Additional Science. It contains information on kidneys including kidney dialysis and kidney transplant from the B3 (biology) specification. I hope this helps you to revise! Please rate and comment on how to improve :) Also, i have a study group called AQA Additional Science where we discuss topics such as this one and many more. Feel free to become a member, the more the merrier!

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B3: Kidneys

People whose kidneys do not function properly die because toxic
substances accumulate in their blood.

Their lives can be saved by using dialysis machines or having a
healthy kidney transplanted.


A healthy kidney produces urine by:
first filtering the blood
reabsorbing all the sugar
reabsorbing the dissolved…

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Kidney Transplant

A kidney transplant enables a diseased kidney to be replaced with
a healthy one from a donor.

However, the donor kidney may be rejected by the immune
system unless precautions are taken.

To prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney:
a donor kidney with a `tissuetype' similar to that…

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live perfectly well with only one
The patient must undergo
irradiation of the bone marrow
The patient must be kept in
hospital in sterile conditions for
some time after the transplant
There is a shortage of donors

Here is a diagram showing how normal kidneys function:

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