B3: Kidneys (Dialysis + Tranpslants included)

This is a document mainly for students taking AQA Additional Science. It contains information on kidneys including kidney dialysis and kidney transplant from the B3 (biology) specification. I hope this helps you to revise! Please rate and comment on how to improve :) Also, i have a study group called AQA Additional Science where we discuss topics such as this one and many more. Feel free to become a member, the more the merrier!

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  • Created by: I P B
  • Created on: 06-03-10 14:19
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B3: Kidneys
People whose kidneys do not function properly die because toxic
substances accumulate in their blood.
Their lives can be saved by using dialysis machines or having a
healthy kidney transplanted.
A healthy kidney produces urine by:
first filtering the blood
reabsorbing all the sugar
reabsorbing the dissolved ions needed by the body
reabsorbing as much water as the body needs
releasing urea, excess ions and water as urine
Sugar and dissolved ions may be actively absorbed against a
concentration gradient.
People who suffer from kidney failure may be treated either by
using a kidney dialysis machine or by having a healthy kidney
In a dialysis machine a person's blood flows between partially
permeable membranes.
The dialysis fluid contains the same concentration of useful
substances as the blood. This ensures that glucose and useful
mineral ions are not lost.
Urea passes out from the blood into dialysis fluid.
Treatment by dialysis restores the concentrations of dissolved
substances in the blood
to normal levels and has
to be carried out at
regular intervals.

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Kidney Transplant
A kidney transplant enables a diseased kidney to be replaced with
a healthy one from a donor.
However, the donor kidney may be rejected by the immune
system unless precautions are taken.
To prevent rejection of the transplanted kidney:
a donor kidney with a `tissuetype' similar to that of the
recipient is used
the recipient is treated with drugs that suppress the immune
system.…read more

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The patient must undergo
irradiation of the bone marrow
The patient must be kept in
hospital in sterile conditions for
some time after the transplant
There is a shortage of donors
Here is a diagram showing how normal kidneys function:…read more

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