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Grouping organisms

All organisms are put into groups to make them easier to
identify organisms and to name new organisms
There are two main groups :

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Some organisms are difficult to classify :

Mushrooms ­ has to have a category of its own ( fungi ) as
it lives off something else ( parasite )
because it cannot photosynthesis
Euglena ­ pond single celled organism, moves about, and
has
chloroplasts so is neither animal or plant…

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Animals

Invertebrate ( Without backbones )
Vertebrates ( With backbones )

These groups can be further sub - divided and so on . . .
This system enables scientist to study the relationships
between various organisms and as well as making
identification much easier




Invertebrates

Annelids ( segmented worm )…

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Crustaceans
e.g. Woodlouse and European Lobster

Body divides into three parts
Breathe through gills
External skeleton, jointed legs

Arachnids ( Spiders and Scorpions )
e.g. Scorpions and Garden Spider

Body divided into two parts
Four pairs of legs, no wings
External skeleton, jointed legs

Insects
e.g. Honey Bee and Dor…

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Vertebrates

Fish
e.g. Atlantic Tarpon and John Dory

Covered with scales
Has fins and gills

Amphibians
e.g. Smooth Newt and Zetek's Frog

Breathe through moist skin and lungs
Needs water to breed

Reptiles
e.g. Green Turtle and Common Iguana

Have dry scaly skin
Breathe only through lungs

Birds
e.g. Great…

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e.g. Common Seal and Red Deer

Covered with hair ( even us ) !
Suckle their young




Problem Species

There are some problem species though :

Archaeopteryx

Had teeth
Had scales
Had feathers
Had beak
Had a long bony tail

Duck ­ billed platypus

It has a beak
It lays…

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Species

A species a group of organisms that is able to breed and
produce fertile offspring

Hybrids
e.g. a horse and a donkey gives a mule and a lion and a tiger
gives a
liger

Some different animals are able to breed but the
offspring is sterile

All species have…

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Different species can look the same

However, different species often look the same because they
have evolved in the same habitats

Dolphins and Sharks

Some species are similar to each other although they are
not closely related
This happens when two very different species are living in
the same habitat

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Dolphins are mammals
They breathe air using lungs and produce milk for their
offspring
The reason why sharks and dolphins are so similar, even
though they are not related, is because they both live in
the same habitat
They have to swim in water so they both have to be…

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