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Some organisms are difficult to classify :
Mushrooms ­ has to have a category of its own ( fungi ) as
it lives off something else ( parasite )
because it cannot photosynthesis
Euglena ­ pond single celled organism, moves about, and
has
chloroplasts so is neither animal or plant as moves
but photosynthesis
The animals can be subdivided again :
Vertebrates ­ Internal skeleton ( endoskeleton )
Invertebrates ­ no bones or external covering
( exoskeleton )
The Major Groups
Basically living things can…read more

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Animals
Invertebrate ( Without backbones )
Vertebrates ( With backbones )
These groups can be further sub - divided and so on . . .
This system enables scientist to study the relationships
between various organisms and as well as making
identification much easier
Invertebrates
Annelids ( segmented worm )
e.g. Common Earthworm and European Leach
Body divides into segments
Each segment has bristles
Molluscs
e.g.…read more

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Crustaceans
e.g. Woodlouse and European Lobster
Body divides into three parts
Breathe through gills
External skeleton, jointed legs
Arachnids ( Spiders and Scorpions )
e.g. Scorpions and Garden Spider
Body divided into two parts
Four pairs of legs, no wings
External skeleton, jointed legs
Insects
e.g.…read more

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Vertebrates
Fish
e.g. Atlantic Tarpon and John Dory
Covered with scales
Has fins and gills
Amphibians
e.g. Smooth Newt and Zetek's Frog
Breathe through moist skin and lungs
Needs water to breed
Reptiles
e.g. Green Turtle and Common Iguana
Have dry scaly skin
Breathe only through lungs
Birds
e.g.…read more

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Common Seal and Red Deer
Covered with hair ( even us ) !
Suckle their young
Problem Species
There are some problem species though :
Archaeopteryx
Had teeth
Had scales
Had feathers
Had beak
Had a long bony tail
Duck ­ billed platypus
It has a beak
It lays egg
Feeds like a mammal…read more

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Species
A species a group of organisms that is able to breed and
produce fertile offspring
Hybrids
e.g. a horse and a donkey gives a mule and a lion and a tiger
gives a
liger
Some different animals are able to breed but the
offspring is sterile
All species have evolved from a common ancestor
e.g.…read more

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Different species can look the same
However, different species often look the same because they
have evolved in the same habitats
Dolphins and Sharks
Some species are similar to each other although they are
not closely related
This happens when two very different species are living in
the same habitat…read more

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Dolphins are mammals
They breathe air using lungs and produce milk for their
offspring
The reason why sharks and dolphins are so similar, even
though they are not related, is because they both live in
the same habitat
They have to swim in water so they both have to be
streamlined and have fins
Dolphins and Whales
Dolphins and Whales are special animals
They have many characteristics of mammals, yet they look
and live like fish such as Sharks
Their ancestors lived on land but…read more

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