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B2 biology notes
Plant and animal cells




Cell membrane- this separates the contents of the cell from its
surroundings the cell membrane is vital in allowing gas exchange- gases
like oxygen in and carbon dioxide out.
Cytoplasm- is a substance in which many chemical reactions vital for
processes to happen…

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DNA
The chromosomes in the nuclei of your cells contain genetic information; they are made up of a
chemical called DNA deoxyribonucleic acid. Sections of DNA are called genes and they contain
instructions for specific proteins used in your body. One gene contains the instructions for one
protein often several…

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The benefits of this project were;
Improved testing for genetic disorders to see if people were carrying a faulty allele
New ways of finding genes that may increase the risk of certain diseases, Alzheimer's heart
disease
New treatments and cures, gene therapy where scientists try and mend faulty genes.
New…

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Mitosis is the process in which a human cell which contains two copies of a chromosome hence is a
diploid cell- two sets of 23 chromosomes, body cells
are diploid cells except for sex cells. In order to make
more cells for growth or repair the cells need to divide…

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Meiosis is the type of cell division needed to produce haploid cells/ gametes, this starts with DNA
replication but then two types of cell division. In the first type of cell division the two sets of
chromosomes are separated. In the second cell division the copies of these chromosomes are…

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Organisms that reproduce slowly can It will also lead to less variation in the
be made quickly, and plants that do not future.
produce seeds can also be made

If a certain organism has a desired If one clone is susceptable to disease
genetic characteristic it can be then all…

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A mutation can occur in a gene mutations can cause the genetic disease of sickle cell anaemia, as
well as causing misshapen nails. Mutations can alter the shape of enzymes and haemoglobin causing
cells to change shape as well, the protein for nails like keratin forms long fibrous molecules hence…

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