B2 Key words.

All the key words you need to know for B2 AQA. Hope they help :D

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  • Created by: Molly
  • Created on: 20-04-11 13:22
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Only in an animal cell-
Nucleus- Contains genetic material that contains the activities of the
Cytoplasm- Gel-like substance where most of the chemical reactions
happen, enzymes control these reactions.
Cell Membrane- Holds the cell together and controls what goes in
and out of the cell.
Mitochondria- Respiration happens here; it releases energy that the
cell needs to work.
Ribosomes- Proteins are made here.
Also in a plant cell-
Rigid Cell Wall- Made of cellulose; supports the cell while
strengthening it.
Permanent Vacuole- Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and
Chloroplasts- This is where photosynthesis occurs, which
contains a green substance called chlorophyll.
Plants Use Glucose For-
-Respiration -Making Fruits -Making Cell Walls
-Making Proteins -Stored in Seeds -Stored as Starch
Diffusion- The movement of particles from an area of high
concentration to an area of low concentration.

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Osmosis- The movement of water molecules across a partially
permeable membrane from a region of high concentration to a
region of low concentration.
Plants Need-
Nitrates make amino acids which are then used to make proteins.
Magnesium is needed to make chlorophyll which is needed for
Potassium + Phosphates are used to make DNA and cell
membranes and help enzymes work properly.
Lack of these Nutrients causes Deficiency Symptoms-
Lack of Nitrates stunts growth so the plant won't reach expected
size.…read more

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Best Conditions for Enzymes- Body Temp (37oC) and normally
pH 7. Some have adapted to be able to still work at different
pH's such as Pepsin in the stomach which works best at pH 2.
Respiration- Is the process of releasing energy from glucose
which goes on in every cell.…read more

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Bile- Produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder before it's
released into the small intestine. It emulsifies fats so they have a
much bigger surface area for the enzyme lipase to work on-
which makes digestion faster.
Homeostasis- The maintenance of a constant internal
environment.…read more

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XY Chromosomes- All men have this chromosome. The Y
chromosome causes male characteristics.
XX Chromosomes- All women have this chromosome. The XX
combination allows female characteristics to develop.
Genetic diagrams- show the possible combinations of
Gametes. There is a 1:1 ratio whether a foetus will be a boy or a
Gregor Mendel- Did genetic experiments with pea plants which
became the foundation of modern genetics. He came to three
main conclusions-
-Characteristics in plants are determined by "hereditary units".…read more


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