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Digestion: Food is chewed in the mouth, where the saliva contains amylase enzymes that start to break
down carbohydrates into glucose When the food is broken down small enough, it is swallowed as a bolus and
started to enter the alimentary canal, from the oesophagus. The food is moved down…

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Anaerobic respiration: Anaerobic respiration takes place after increased exercise. Our muscles are working
harder and need more energy at a faster rate to do so, so oxygen and glucose in the blood need to be
pumped faster by the heart so it gets to the respiring tissues. At a point,…

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cholesterol by preventing it from absorbing into the blood. High blood cholesterol also leads to heart
disease. Plant stanol esters are now produced in spreads.

Genetic Engineering

1. Human insulin gene is cut out from the DNA by restriction enzymes and inserted into the plasmid DNA
of live bacteria. This…

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DNA discovery: Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin X-rayed a purified DNA and worked out how the atoms
in the DNA were arranged. Afterwards, Francis crick and James Watson used Rosalind's DNA to make a 3D
Molecular model of how they thought DNA looked .Because the x-ray image was so detailed,…

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