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All animals and plants are made of cells. Animal cells and plant cells have features in common,
such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosome's. Plant cells also have
a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole. Cells may be specialised to carry

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Specialised cells:

Cells may be specialised for a particular function. Their structure will allow them to carry this
function out.

Cell Function Adaption

Absorbs light energy Packed with chloroplasts. Regular
for photosynthesis shaped, closely packed cells form a
continuous layer for efficient
absorption of sunlight.

Leaf cell

Absorbs water and…

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Dissolved substances have to pass through the cell membrane to get into or out of a cell.
Diffusion is one of the processes that allows this to happen. Diffusion occurs when particles
spread. They move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they…

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Water can move across cell membranes because of osmosis. For osmosis to happen you need:
Two solutions with different concentrations
A partially permeable membrane to separate them
Partially permeable membranes let some substances pass through them, but not others.
Osmosis is the net movement of water from a less…

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Green plants absorb light energy using chlorophyll in their leaves. They use it to react carbon
dioxide with water to make a sugar called glucose. The glucose is used in respiration, or converted
into starch and stored. Oxygen is produced as a byproduct. This process is called
photosynthesis. Temperature,…

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The equation for photosynthesis:

Plants absorb water through their roots, and carbon dioxide through their leaves. Some glucose is
used for respiration, while some is converted into insoluble starch for storage. The stored starch
can later be turned back into glucose and used in respiration. Oxygen is released as a…

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Farmers can use their knowledge of these limiting factors to increase crop growth in greenhouses.
They may use artificial light so that photosynthesis can continue beyond daylight hours, or in a
higherthannormal light intensity. The use of paraffin lamps inside a greenhouse increases the rate
of photosynthesis because the burning…

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If a plant does not get enough minerals, its growth will be poor. It will suffer from deficiency
Deficient in nitrate It will suffer from stunted growth.
Deficient in magnesium It's leaves will turn yellow.

Food Chains and Cycles:

Food chains show the feeding relationships between living things. Pyramids…

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The Sun is the ultimate source of energy for most communities of living things. Green plants
absorb some of the Sun's light energy to make their own food by photosynthesis. The other
organisms in a food chain are consumers, because they all get their energy and biomass by
consuming other…

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Primary consumers Usually eat plant material. They are herbivores. For example rabbits,
caterpillars, cows and sheep.

Secondary Usually eat animal material. They are carnivores. For example cats, dogs
consumers and lions.

Predators Kill for food. They are either secondary or tertiary consumers

Prey The animals that predators feed on.



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